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Risk Engineering The proposed OSHA crane standard Zurich Services Corporation.

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Presentation on theme: "Risk Engineering The proposed OSHA crane standard Zurich Services Corporation."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Risk Engineering The proposed OSHA crane standard Zurich Services Corporation

3 Risk Engineering What and when Based on the final publication of the Crane and Derrick Advisory Committee (CDAC), published in 2004 OSHA finally published the Proposed Rule October 8, The public comment period expires today – January 22, 2009

4 Risk Engineering Why is a new standard needed? OSHA and are 39 years old There have been no revisions since original publication There were some oversights in the original There have been many technological advances for crane equipment in the last for decades The new standard gets away from SHOULD and includes more SHALL statements Focusing on competent persons and giving more defined descriptions of personnel’s responsibilities Taking multiple ANSI/ASME standards and creating their own (some are more stringent)

5 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards OSHA – 17 pages OSHA – 15 pages ASME B30.5 – 46 pages New Subpart N – 1,110 pages Photo credits: 1) US Army (public domain), 3 by Bill Davis, 1 from Craneaccidents.com with permission

6 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Operator qualifications – nothing – nothing – 8 pages Photo credit: Bill Davis

7 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Tower cranes – nothing – ¼ page – 7 pages Photo credit: Bill Davis

8 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Floating cranes – nothing – 1 page – 9 pages Photo credit: Bill Davis

9 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Overhead and gantry cranes – nothing – ½ page – 1 page Photo credit: Bill Davis

10 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Signaling – nothing – nothing – 3 pages Use of standard signals is mandatory Signalers must be qualified Photo credit: Bill Davis

11 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Wire rope – nothing – nothing – 3 pages Photo credit: Bill Davis

12 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Ground conditions – nothing – nothing – 1 page Photo credit: Bill Davis

13 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Assembly and disassembly – nothing – nothing – 6 pages Photo credit: Bill Davis

14 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Power lines – nothing – ¼ page – 11 pages Photo credit: Bill Davis

15 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Inspections – 4 pages – nothing – 11 pages Photo credit: Bill Davis

16 Risk Engineering Comparison of standards Personnel platforms – nothing – 8 pages – 12 pages Photo credits: Bill Davis

17 Risk Engineering What’s new? Inspection criteria Fall protection Signal person qualification Power line safety (really big) Ground conditions Authority to stop operations Operational aids The really big one – Operator qualifications Photo credit: Bill Davis

18 Risk Engineering What’s included? Hoisting personnel Tower cranes Derricks Wire rope Multiple crane lifts Overhead and gantry cranes Design, construction and testing Photo credits: Bill Davis

19 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Crane on rails Photo credit: Bill Davis

20 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Crane crawlers Photo credit: Bill Davis

21 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Carry-deck cranes Photo credit: Bill Davis

22 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Locomotive cranes Photo credit: Bill Davis

23 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Rough terrain cranesCommercial truck mounted cranes Photo credits: Bill Davis

24 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Cranes on bargesFloating cranes Photo credits: Bill Davis

25 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Boom trucks Photo credits: Bill Davis

26 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Derricks Photo credit: Bill Davis

27 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Tower cranes Photo credit: Bill Davis

28 Risk Engineering What is a crane (what is included in the standard?) Mechanic’s trucks with hoisting devices* Pedestal cranes Side boom tractors Dedicated pile drivers Any other machine configured to hoist and lower, and horizontally move a suspended load Photo credit: Bill Davis

29 Risk Engineering What is not a crane (not included in the standard)? Concrete pump Photo credit: Bill Davis

30 Risk Engineering What is not a crane (not included in the standard)? Excavators Photo credits: Bill Davis

31 Risk Engineering What is not a crane (not included in the standard)? Wheel Loader Track Loader Power Shovel Dummy in a bucket Photo credit: Bill Davis

32 Risk Engineering What is not a crane (not included in the standard)? Fork lifts Photo credit: Bill Davis

33 Risk Engineering What is not a crane (not included in the standard)? Digger derricks Photo credit: Bill Davis

34 Risk Engineering What is not a crane (not included in the standard)? Tow trucks* Vehicle mounted work platforms Self-propelled elevating work platforms Stacker cranes Mechanic’s trucks with hoisting devices* Photo credit: Bill Davis

35 Risk Engineering What is not a crane (not included in the standard)? Come-a-longs and chainfalls Dedicated drilling rigs Gin poles for communication tower work Tree trimming Photo credit: Bill Davis

36 Risk Engineering Big definitions for people A/D supervisor Appointed person Competent person Dedicated spotter Operator Qualified evaluator Qualified person Qualified rigger Photo credit: Bill Davis

37 Risk Engineering Crane setup Ground conditions and supporting material Must be ensured to be adequate by the GC/CM or other controlling entity – where there is no controlling entity, requirements shall be met by the employer Good Not good Photo credit: Bill Davis

38 Risk Engineering Crane setup (continued) Lengthy procedures for crane assembly/disassembly Specifications on supervision knowledge and authority Crew training and instructions No person under the boom during pin removal Proper outrigger blocking is mandatory Photo credit: Bill Davis

39 Risk Engineering Crane setup – power lines No part of crane, line or load may be able to reach within 20 feet of a power line during setup Exceptions: De-energize and ground power lines – or - Use of a dedicated spotter – or - Proximity alarms* Assembly/disassembly below power lines is prohibited Photo credit: Bill Davis

40 Risk Engineering Power lines in crane operations Must identify work zone and either mark boundaries, use range limiting devices or range control warnings Must determine if any part of crane, line or load could get within 20 feet (if less than 350kV of a power line – 50 foot clearance for all lines over 350kV If yes, must either deenergize and ground Or maintain 20 foot clearance Or use table A Photo credit: Bill Davis

41 Risk Engineering Power line minimum clearances Table A - (almost the same as ASME B30.5) Voltage (kV)minimum clearance distance (feet) Up to to to to to to Over 1000as established by line owner

42 Risk Engineering Power lines in crane operations (continued) Special requirements for working below power lines Non-conductive rigging required Training of operators and crew required to include: Procedures to follow after power line contact Operator’s emergency procedures Safest means to evacuate equipment Danger of a potential energized zone Need for crew to avoid approach Safe clearance from power lines Photo credit – OSHA website (public domain)

43 Risk Engineering Power lines in crane operations (continued) All power lines are presumed to be energized unless confirmed to be deenergized by the utility owner/operator AND visibly grounded at the worksite All power lines presumed to be uninsulated Shall understand limitations of insulating links, proximity alarms and range control devices, if used Dedicated spotters shall be trained Diagram: D. Dickie, used with permission

44 Risk Engineering Inspection criteria Each shift (daily or more often) Monthly Annual comprehensive After modification After repair or adjustment Photo credit: Bill Davis

45 Risk Engineering Inspection criteria Documented monthly inspections Kept on file for three months Annual inspection by a qualified person Documented Detail inspection criteria Functional testing Kept on file for 12 months or next annual inspection

46 Risk Engineering Inspection criteria (continued) Severe service Shock load, corrosive atmosphere, etc. Inspect exposed items/conditions Document Not in regular use Idle more than three months Monthly inspection must be performed Document

47 Risk Engineering Wire rope inspection Shift inspection Monthly inspection Annual inspection Photo credit: Bill Davis

48 Risk Engineering Safety devices Mandatory equipment Crane level indicator Boom stops (except hydraulic booms) Jib stops Locks for foot pedal brakes Integral check valves for hydraulic outriggers Rail clamps and stops for equipment on rails

49 Risk Engineering Operational aids Required equipment – must be in service except where specified temporary alternative measures are met Boom hoist limiting device Luffing jib limiting device Anti two-block device (cranes manufactured after 2/28/92) Exceptions: Lattice booms used for dragline Clam shell Scrap magnet Drop ball Marine operations Pile driving work

50 Risk Engineering Operational aids (continued) Boom angle or radius indicator Jib angle indicator (luffing jibs) Boom length indicator (telescopic booms) Load weighing devices (load moment indicators, rated capacity indicators or rated capacity limiters - cranes manufactured after 3/29/03) Outrigger position indicators (cranes manufactured after 1/1/08) Hoist drum rotation indicator (if drum is not visible to operator)

51 Risk Engineering Fall protection Fall protection above six feet, with exceptions: While at a work station or going to and from a work station When walking point to point along a horizontal lattice boom that has been lowered to the ground and supported

52 Risk Engineering Fall protection (continued) Anchorages may be any part of the boom or to any substantial piece on the equipment (existing equipment only). Exception: Fall protection must be used when working over 15 feet during the assembly or disassembly.

53 Risk Engineering Operator certification Photo credit: Bill Davis

54 Risk Engineering Operator certification (continued) No physical examinations or mandatory drug testing requirements Re-certification must be completed every five years Four acceptable methods of certifying employees

55 Risk Engineering Operator certification (continued) Option (1) – Certification by an accredited crane operator testing organization: Accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency Certification is portable Valid for five years Program must be reviewed by a nationally recognized accrediting agency every three years

56 Risk Engineering Operator certification (continued) Option (2) – Qualification by an audited employer program: Developed or approved by an auditor certified by an accredited crane operator testing organization Auditor is not an employee of the employer Tests should be administered per nationally recognized test administration standards Program shall be audited within the first three months, then once every three years. Qualification is not portable and valid for five years.

57 Risk Engineering Operator certification (continued) Option (3) – Qualification by the US military: Qualification is not portable Valid for the period of time stipulated by the issuing entity

58 Risk Engineering Operator certification (continued) Option (4) – Licensing by a government entity: Meets or exceeds requirements of this subpart Valid only within the jurisdiction of the government entity Valid for time specified by the government entity, but no longer than five years

59 Risk Engineering Pennsylvania requirements Operators must get a state license by October 2010 To get a license, must have an accredited certification Applies to most construction cranes – excludes mobile cranes less than 15 tons, tower cranes less than 10 tons, digger derricks, forklifts, tow trucks, bucket trucks, longshore, manufacturing, coal mining

60 Risk Engineering Operator certification (continued) Certification criteria Written test – Controls and operational performance – Ability to calculate the load/capacity – Procedures for power line contact – Site preparation – Ability to read/locate manuals/charts relevant to the equipment being operated

61 Risk Engineering Operator certification (continued) Certification criteria (continued) Practical examination – Ability to perform pre-shift inspection – Operational and maneuvering skills – Application of load chart information – Application of safe shut-down and securing procedures Photo credit: Bill Davis

62 Risk Engineering Operator certification (continued) Employer must revoke operators license if they have reason to believe the employee is not qualified to operate. All programs shall have provisions for retraining employees. The current training records must be on file during the operator’s employment.

63 Risk Engineering Signal-person qualification Qualified evaluator must conduct the training Training requirements: Know and understand signals to be used, as well as all forms of signals (i.e., voice, hand, radio, etc.). Be competent in the application of the type of signals to be used. Have basic understanding of crane operation and limitations, including the crane dynamics involved in swinging and stopping loads and boom deflection from hoisting loads. Must be able to effectively communicate to crane operator (i.e., english-english, spanish-spanish, etc.)

64 Risk Engineering Power line safety Photo credit: Bill Davis

65 Risk Engineering Power line safety – assembly/disassembly If any part could get within 20 feet from the power line, then: Employer must confirm with the utility operator that the line has been de-energized Or else Determine the line’s voltage and the minimum approach distance permitted in specified table

66 Risk Engineering Power line safety – assembly/disassembly (continued) Prevent encroachment by: Conducting a planning meeting with a competent, qualified person Utilizing a dedicated spotter who is in constant contact with the operator When boom is elevated, additional measures must be in place (i.e., proximity alarm, device limiting the range of movement, elevated warning line or barricade, etc.)

67 Risk Engineering Power line safety – assembly/disassembly (continued) No part of the crane is allowed below a power line unless the utility operator has confirmed proper grounding. If the chart is used to determine encroachment distance, then the utility operator must provide voltage information within two working days of request. All lines must be assumed energized, unless confirmation is given from utility operator. There must be at least one electrocution hazard warning sticker conspicuously placed in the cab.

68 Risk Engineering Power line safety – crane operations Work zone must be identified. An insulating link or device must be installed at a point between the load and the load line to prevent the load from becoming energized Non-conductive rigging must be used if the rigging may be within the table distances. Use non-conductive tag lines, if needed.

69 Risk Engineering Power line safety – crane operations (continued) Non-conductive barricades to prevent unauthorized personnel from entering If power line is energized then no one other than the operator can touch the crane or rigging. Only essential personnel are permitted within the work area. Crane must be properly grounded. Procedures from the pre-lift meeting on working within safety zone of power lines must be documented and available on-site.

70 Risk Engineering Power line safety – crane operations within Table A Prohibited except where the employer demonstrates the following: Determines it is not feasible to do the work without breaching the minimum-approach distance After consulting with the utility operator, it is determined that de- energizing the line is not feasible

71 Risk Engineering Power line safety – crane operations within Table A (continued) The utility operator, or PE qualified in electrical power transmission, determines the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained. Factors include conditions affecting atmospheric conductivity, time necessary to bring the equipment to a stop, wind conditions, etc. Power lines are presumed energized, unless the utility operator confirms the line is de- energized. Photo credit: Bill Davis

72 Risk Engineering Power line safety - crane operations within Table A (continued) A planning meeting with the employer and utility operator/PE is held to determine the procedures that will be followed to prevent electrical contact such as: – Deactivate the device that automatically reenergizes the circuit in the event of a power line contact – Use of a dedicated spotter The utility operator or employee of the utility operator supervises and has the authority to stop work at any time to ensure safety.

73 Risk Engineering Ground conditions The controlling entity shall: Ensure that ground preparations necessary to meet the requirements of a good, level, drained site is adequate to support the equipment in use. Locate all hazards that are identified in documents available. Photo credit: Bill Davis

74 Risk Engineering Authority to stop operations Whenever there is a concern as to safety, the operator shall have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined that safety has been assured. Photo credit: Bill Davis

75 Risk Engineering Operational aids Operations shall not begin unless the operational aids are in proper working order, except where the employer meets the specified temporary alternative measures: Category I Category II

76 Risk Engineering Operational aids – Category I Boom hoist limiting device Luffing jib limiting device Anti two-blocking device If a deficiency occurs, the employer must be able to demonstrate that the replacement parts have been ordered within seven days of notification. Repairs shall take place within seven days of receipt of the parts. Photo credit: Bill Davis

77 Risk Engineering Operational aids – Category II Boom angle or radius indicator Jib angle indicator Boom length indicator Load-weighing device, load- moment indicator, rated capacity indicator or rated capacity limiter Outrigger position monitor/sensor (new) Drum rotation indicator (new) Photo credit: Bill Davis

78 Risk Engineering Operational aids – Category II (continued) If a deficiency occurs, the employer must ensure the part is repaired within 30 days. Exception: If the employer has documented the replacement parts were ordered within seven days of occurrence, the repair shall be completed within seven days of receipt of the parts.

79 Risk Engineering Wire rope Competent person to conduct visual inspections before each shift, monthly and annually Categorize deficiencies in: Category I Category II Category III Photo credit: Bill Davis

80 Risk Engineering Wire rope (continued) Shift inspection – before each shift Monthly inspection – all wire ropes, including running ropes (documented) Annual inspection – At least every 12 months, unless not feasible due to set-up. More detailed, including wire rope that is normally hidden during daily/monthly inspections, etc. (documented)

81 Risk Engineering Wire rope – Category I Category I Severe distortion, significant corrosion, electric arc, etc. If a category-I deficiency is identified, an immediate determination shall be made by the qualified person as to: – Replacement of the wire rope, or – If the deficiency is localized, the wire rope may be severed at the bad spot and may be continued to be used. Photo credit: Bill Davis

82 Risk Engineering Wire rope – Category II Category II Visual broken wires Reduction of nominal rope diameter If a Category II deficiency is identified, an immediate determination shall be made by the qualified person as to: – Based on manufacturer recommendations, remove or monitor the wire rope for continued deterioration.

83 Risk Engineering Wire rope – Category II (continued) The qualified person determines when to replace the wire rope (no more than 30 days the deficiency is identified). A qualified person assesses the deficiency in light of the load and other conditions of use and determines it is safe for continued use. A qualified person establishes the parameters of use. All workers who conduct shift inspections are notified. The qualified person’s findings and procedures are documented.

84 Risk Engineering Wire rope – Category III Category III Electrical contact to power line Core protrusion or other distortion indicating core failure in rotation- resistant wire rope If a category-III deficiency is identified, operations involving use of the wire rope shall be prohibited until: – Wire rope is replaced (power line contact) – Deficiency is localized and problem corrected

85 Risk Engineering Multiple-crane lifts A multiple-crane lift must be planned with the following requirements: Plan must be developed by a competent, qualified person Plan must be designed to ensure that the requirements of the Subpart are met Lift must be supervised by a competent,-qualified person Photo credit: Bill Davis

86 Risk Engineering Overhead and gantry cranes All permanently installed cranes must meet except for (b)(1) All cranes not permanently installed must meet the same requirements, except a few definitions and manufacturer dated standards Photo credit: Bill Davis

87 Risk Engineering Design, construction and testing Shall meet certain sections of ASME B30.5 Sections not covered in ASME B30.5 have been added Allows two options when testing mobile cranes Applies to all cranes, manufactured after date of standard, used in the United States.

88 Risk Engineering Mandatory training Overhead power lines Signal persons Competent/qualified persons Operators Crush/pinch points Tag-out Photo credit: J. McRoy, face in the photo is the author – Bill Davis

89 Risk Engineering Conclusion (what should we do now?) Start training signal people (and instruct others to keep their hands in their pockets) Plan on how, when and where to get crane operators trained, and tested CCO already mandatory in these states: CaliforniaMinnesotaNew Jersey HawaiiWest VirginiaNevada MontanaNew MexicoOregon Rhode IslandUtah Washington(2010) Pennsylvania (in progress) South Carolina (DOT projects only) Make sure the equipment and supporting documentation meets the new rules

90 Risk Engineering © 2008 Zurich Services Corporation. All rights reserved. The information in this publication and presentation was compiled by Zurich Services Corporation from sources believed to be reliable. Further, all sample policies and procedures herein should serve as a guideline which you can use to create your own policies and procedures. We trust that you will customize these samples to reflect your own operations and believe that these samples may serve as a helpful platform for this endeavor. Any and all information contained herein is not intended to constitute legal advice and accordingly, you should consult with your own attorneys when developing programs and policies. We do not guarantee the accuracy of this information or any results and further assume no liability in connection with this publication and presentation and sample policies and procedures, including any information, methods or safety suggestions contained herein. Moreover, Zurich Services Corporation reminds you that this cannot be assumed to contain every acceptable safety and compliance procedure or that additional procedures might not be appropriate under the circumstances. The subject matter of this publication and presentation is not tied to any specific insurance product nor will adopting these policies and procedures ensure coverage under any insurance policy.


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