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CHAPTER 6 Basic Safety and Infection Control 6-2 Learning Outcomes 6.1 Describe the components of a medical office safety plan. 6.2 Identify OSHA’s role.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 6 Basic Safety and Infection Control 6-2 Learning Outcomes 6.1 Describe the components of a medical office safety plan. 6.2 Identify OSHA’s role."— Presentation transcript:


2 CHAPTER 6 Basic Safety and Infection Control

3 6-2 Learning Outcomes 6.1 Describe the components of a medical office safety plan. 6.2 Identify OSHA’s role in protecting healthcare workers. 6.3 Describe basic safety precautions you should take to reduce electrical hazards. 6.4 Illustrate the necessary steps in a comprehensive fire safety plan.

4 6-3 Learning Outcomes (cont.) 6.5 Summarize proper methods for handling and storing chemicals used in a medical office. 6.6 Explain the principles of good ergonomic practice and physical safety in the medical office. 6.7 Illustrate the cycle of infection and how to break it.

5 6-4 6.8Summarize the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard and Universal Precautions as described in the rules and regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 6.9 Describe methods of infection control including those preventing healthcare- associated infections. 6.10 Describe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requirements for reporting cases of infectious disease. Learning Outcomes

6 6-5 Introduction Accidents can occur in healthcare settings Remove or correct hazards –Physical –Chemical –Biohazardous Removal or correction of hazards is integral to risk management

7 6-6 Medical Office Safety Plan Minimize risk Establish a safety plan Education about potential dangers facilitates the removal or correction of these hazards

8 6-7 Medical Office Safety Plan (cont.) Comprehensive written safety plan Easily accessible Updated annually Know and follow the plan’s policies and procedures

9 6-8 Apply Your Knowledge Why is it important to have a safety plan in a medical office and what should the plan cover? ANSWER: It is important to have a safety plan to help minimize risk and make everyone aware of potential hazards. A safety plan should contain: OSHA Hazard Communication Electrical and fire safety Emergency action plan Chemical safety Blood borne pathogen exposure Personal protective equipment Needlestick prevention

10 6-9 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Employee safety Specific standard vs. General Duty Clause Enforces guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

11 6-10 OSHA Hazard Communication Biohazard labels Warning signs Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) Hazard labels

12 6-11 OSHA Final rule –Standardize Labeling Safety information –Right to understand –Changes Hazard classification Labels MSDSs

13 6-12 Apply Your Knowledge ANSWER: So employees can take measures to protect themselves against harm. Why is it important for hazardous materials be correctly labeled?

14 6-13 Electrical Safety Know location of power shutoffs Avoid using extension cords Observe for frayed electrical wires Dry hands before working with electrical devices Do not position electrical devices near sources of water

15 6-14 Apply Your Knowledge ANSWER: Avoid using extension cords. Tape extension cords to the floor to avoid tripping. Repair or replace equipment that has a broken or frayed cord. Dry your hands before working with electrical devices. Do not position electrical devices near sinks, faucets, or other sources of water. List three electrical safeguards to practice in the healthcare setting?

16 6-15 Fire Safety Many potential hazards in a medical office Fire Prevention –Hazards in the exam room –Office laboratory ~ open flame

17 6-16 In Case of Fire (cont.) Using safety equipment –Fire extinguisher – “PASS” system –Fire blanket

18 6-17 Emergency Action Plans and Drills Responsibility –Reporting fire –Overseeing evacuation Building evacuation routes –Current location –Nearest exit

19 6-18 Emergency Action Plans and Drills (cont.) Evacuation Procedure –Ensure patients and staff are evacuated –Check that everyone has left –Take MSDS book –Assembly area –Emergency action plan drills –Local emergency contacts

20 6-19 Apply Your Knowledge Once at the assembly area after an evacuation how would you account for employees and patients? ANSWER: Conduct a roll call of all employees. You can use the check-in roster to account for patients.

21 6-20 Proper handling and storage MSDS General precautions Eye wash station Chemical Safety

22 6-21 Chemical Safety (cont.) Do not hold under nose Use fume hood or personal ventilation device Only combine chemicals as required No mouth pipetting Add acid to other substances Clean up spills properly

23 6-22 Apply Your Knowledge What are the precautions you should take when working with hazardous substances? ANSWER: Store below eye level Wear protective gear Carry with both hands Properly ventilated

24 6-23 Ergonomics and Physical Safety Ergonomics Maintain a healthy and safe posture Do not over reach Lift properly

25 6-24 Ergonomics Transferring a patient –Lift with knees –Ask for assistance –Use transfer device Adjust seat Take frequent breaks from the computer

26 6-25 Physical Safety Walk, do not run, in the office. Wipe up spills immediately Clear the floor of dropped objects Be sure there are no snags or tears in the carpet Destroy and dispose of medications that are dropped on the floor

27 6-26 Physical Safety (cont.) Be careful when carrying objects Close cabinets, doors, and drawers Inspect furniture for rough edges Tape down cords and equipment cables Never use damaged equipment or supplies

28 6-27 Physical Safety (cont.) Safeguards for the laboratory environment –Wear protective gear –Follow manufacturer’s guidelines

29 6-28 Physical Safety (cont.) Special safety precautions –Children –Patients with physical disabilities Safe flooring Handrails

30 6-29 Apply Your Knowledge ANSWER: The employer Whose responsibility is it to ensure a safe work environment? Whose responsibility is it to follow safe work practices? ANSWER: The employee

31 6-30 Infection Control Medical assistant –Help to create and maintain a safe and healthy environment –Understand how infections Occur Are transmitted in the population –Practice infection control precautions

32 6-31 Cycle of Infection Back

33 6-32 Cycle of Infection (cont.) Reservoir Host – body capable of sustaining pathogen growth –Carrier –Endogenous infection –Exogenous infection Means of Exit - how the pathogen leaves the host Click for Cycle of Infections

34 6-33 Cycle of Infection (cont.) Means of transmission – how the pathogen spreads to a host –Airborne –Bloodborne –During pregnancy or birth Click for Cycle of Infection

35 6-34 Cycle of Infection (cont.) How the pathogen spreads to a host –Foodborne –Vector-borne –Touching Direct – contact with an infected persons mucous membranes Indirect – fomites Click for Cycle of Infection

36 6-35 Cycle of Infection (cont.) Means of Entrance –Any cavity lined with mucous membrane – Breaks in the skin Susceptible Host –An indi vidual with little or no immunity –Factors influencing susceptibility Click for Cycle of Infection

37 6-36 Cycle of Infection (cont.) Environmental factors –Dense populations –Animals and insects –Economic and political factors –Availability of transportation –Urbanization and population growth rates –Sexual behavior

38 6-37 Breaking the Cycle Asepsis –Maintain strict housekeeping standards –Adhere to government guidelines –Educate patients Hygiene Health promotion Disease prevention

39 6-38 Apply Your Knowledge What is your role as a medical assistant in breaking the cycle of infection in the medical office? ANSWER: To a pply these measures: Maintain strict housekeeping standards to reduce the number of pathogens present Adhere to government guidelines to protect against diseases caused by pathogens Educate patients in hygiene, health promotion, and disease prevention..

40 6-39 OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard and Universal Precautions Disposal of infectious or potentially infectious waste Laws protect healthcare workers and patients –Training personnel –Record keeping –Housekeeping –Wearing protective gear

41 6-40 OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard Employers must –Develop an OSHA Exposure Control Plan –Provide training to all employees Documentation PPE, Universal Precautions, engineering controls What to do if exposure occurs –Provide the hepatitis B vaccine

42 6-41 Universal Precautions (cont.) Universal Precautions apply to all blood and body fluids Standard Precautions –Used in healthcare facilities for the care of all patients –Prevents the transmission of disease

43 6-42 Universal Precautions (cont.) Risk categories I.Tasks that require specific protective measures II.Tasks that require precautions in certain situations III.Tasks requiring no special protection

44 6-43 Written Exposure Plan Determination of exposure Implementation of control methods Post-exposure evaluation and follow-up Communication and training Recordkeeping Evaluation of exposure incidents

45 6-44 Exposure Incidents Notify the physician or employer immediately Refer the employee to a licensed healthcare provider –Counsel the employee –Draw blood and prescribe treatment –Written report

46 6-45 Other OSHA Requirements HBV vaccine Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act –Engineered safety devices –Employer recommendations Engineering controls Needlestick safety programs

47 6-46 Other OSHA Requirements (cont.) Employee recommendations –Avoid using needles –Help choose devices –Use devices provided –Do not recap needles –Dispose of sharps correctly –Report injuries and hazards –Participate in training

48 6-47 Apply Your Knowledge ANSWER: There are three categories of risk: Category 1: Expose a worker to blood, body fluids, or tissues and require specific protective measures Category 2: Usually do not involve risk of exposure, but precautions are required in certain situations Category 3: No risk of exposure, so no special protection is required OSHA divides medical tasks by level of risk. What are these risk categories?

49 6-48 Infection Control Methods Knowledge of –Medical asepsis Based on cleanliness As few microorganisms as possible –Surgical asepsis Sterile environment No microorganisms

50 6-49 Infection Control Methods (cont.) Keep office clean Prevent cross- contamination –Follow guidelines –Use protective gear

51 6-50 Hand Hygiene Handwashing Alcohol-based hand disinfectants (AHD) Fingernail length Nail polish and artificial nails

52 6-51 Other Aseptic Precautions Avoid leaning against sinks, etc. Avoid touching your face and mouth Use tissues for coughing or sneezing; wash hands afterward Avoid working with patients if you have a cold; wear gloves and mask Stay home if you have a fever

53 6-52 Personal Protective Equipment Gloves Masks and protective eyewear or face shields Protective clothing Use of multiple types of PPE

54 6-53 Transmission from Healthcare Workers Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) Adhere to OSHA Standards High risk procedures HIV, HBV status of healthcare workers

55 6-54 Apply Your Knowledge Describe the difference between medical and surgical asepsis. ANSWER: Medical asepsis is based on cleanliness and reducing the number of microorganisms as much as possible. Surgical asepsis is maintaining a sterile environment by eliminating all microorganisms.

56 6-55 Reporting Guidelines for Infectious Diseases State or county health department Information is forwarded to the CDC National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System

57 6-56 Reporting Guidelines (cont.) Reporting – correct form –Disease identification –Patient identification –Infection history –Reporting institution name

58 6-57 Apply Your Knowledge How is the information on reportable diseases used by the CDC? ANSWER: The CDC uses the information reported to them to help control the spread of infection.

59 6-58 In Summary 6.1 The medical office safety plan should include OSHA’s Hazard Communication; electrical, fire, and chemical safety; emergency action plans; bloodborne pathogen exposure plans; PPE; and needlestick prevention plans. 6.2 The U.S. Department of Labor created OSHA to protect the employees’ safety in the workplace. Through the creation and enforcement of standards such as the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, Hazard Communication, and the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act, OSHA serves to protect healthcare workers from hazards.

60 6-59 In Summary (cont.) 6.3 To reduce electrical hazards in the medical office, you should avoid using extension cords, repair or replace damaged cords, avoid overloading circuits, ensure that all plugs are grounded, dry your hands before using electrical devices, and keep electrical devices away from sinks or other sources of water. 6.4 A comprehensive fire safety plan must include fire prevention strategies, actions to take in the event of a fire, building evacuation routes and plans, fire drills, and local emergency contacts.

61 6-60 In Summary (cont.) 6.5 When using chemicals in the medical office, you should always wear protective gear, carry the container with both hands, work in a well-ventilated area, never combine chemicals unless it is specifically required in the test procedures, and properly clean up spills immediately. 6.6 In order to protect yourself from work-related musculoskeletal disorders at work, you must follow the principles of good body mechanics. Your physical safety at work depends on understanding and applying appropriate workplace safeguards.

62 6-61 In Summary (cont.) 6.7 In order for an infection to occur, these five elements must be in place: a reservoir host, a means of exit, a means of transmission, a means of entrance, and a susceptible host. The most effective means of breaking the cycle of Infection is by using aseptic techniques. 6.8 Laws set forth in the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard of 1991 dictate how you must handle infectious or potentially infectious waste generated during medical or surgical procedures.

63 6-62 In Summary (cont.) 6.9 The two basic methods of infection control are medical asepsis and surgical asepsis. OSHA recommends that healthcare workers who work with high-risk patients know their HIV and HBV status, participate in a HBV vaccination program, and avoid direct patient contact if they have a skin condition characterized by sores that secrete fluid. 6.10 The CDC requires reporting of certain diseases to the state or county department of health, who then reports the information to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System of the CDC.

64 6-63 End of Chapter 6 Soap and education are not as sudden as a massacre, but they are more deadly in the long run. ~ Mark Twain

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