2 Temperature ~American Heritage Dictionary 3 Scales A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale~American Heritage Dictionary3 ScalesScaleBoiling Point of H2OFreezing Point of H2OAbsolute ZeroFahrenheitCelsiusKelvin
3 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Thermal EquilibriumTwo systems are in thermal equilibrium if and only if they have the same temperature. Two systems that are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system are in thermal equilibrium with each other.Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
4 Thermal ExpansionMost materials expand when their temperature increases.Linear ExpansionExpansion in one dimension (usually the length)change in length is proportional to the change in temperatureMaterialα (1/oC)Aluminum24 x 10-6Brass & Bronze19 x 10-6Copper17 x 10-6Steel11 x 10-6Concrete12 x 10-6
5 Expansion of Railroad Tracks A steel railroad track has a length of m when the temperature is 0oC. What is its length on a hot day when the temperature is 40oC? α = 11 x 10-6 (oC)-1
6 James Joule and HeatJames Joule discovered by various means that he could heat a body of water by purely mechanical means:by lowering a weight and letting a paddle wheel stir the waterby passing electric current through a resistorby compressing a piston immersed in the waterby friction from rubbing blocks together.He found that about 800 foot-pounds ( 1 kilo joule) of work could raise the temperature of one pound (.45 kilograms) of water one Fahrenheit degree (0.55oC).
7 Heat flow is energy transfer. Heat (Q)Energy that is transferred from one object or system to another object or system as a result of a temperature difference.(The concept of heat only has meaning as energy in transit.)Heat flow is energy transfer.Units: Joule (J), calorie (cal), Calorie (Cal), British thermal unit (Btu)Unit RelationsJoulescaloriesCaloriesBtu10.2392.39 x 10-49.48 x 10-44.1860.0013.97 x 10-3418610003.9710552520.252The calorie is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5oC to 15.5oC.One Btu is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water from 63oF to 64oF.
8 Specific Heat Capacity Quantity of heat needed to change the temperature of a system is dependent on three things:The quantity of the temperature change.The mass of the system.The nature of the material.The amount of heat Q needed for a certain temperature change ΔT is proportional to the temperature change and to the mass m of substance being heated;
9 Down with the SicknessDuring a bout with the flu, an 80 kg man ran a fever of 2.0 Co. His body temperature was 39.0oC (102.2oF) instead of the normal 37oC. Assuming that the human body is mostly water, how much heat was required to raise his temperature by that amount?Materialc [J/(kg·K)]Water4.19 x 103Ice (-25oC to 0oC)2.01 x 103Aluminum0.91 x 103Salt0.88 x 103Iron0.47 x 103Silver0.23 x 103
10 Circuitry OverloadYou are an electric engineer designing an electronic circuit element made of 23 mg of silicon. The electric current through it adds energy at the rate of 7.4 mW (7.4 x 10-3 J/s). If your design doesn’t allow for any heat transfer out of the element, at what rate does its temperature increase? The specific heat capacity of silicon is 705 J/(kg·K).
11 Cooling a hot ingotIngot - metal that is cast in the shape of a block for convenient handling A kg ingot of metal is heated to 200.0oC and then dropped into a beaker containing kg of water that is initially at 20.0oC. If the final equilibrium temperature of the mixed system is 22.4oC, find the specific heat of the metal.
12 Phases of Matter Three familiar phases of matter include: Gases LiquidsSolids…but there are more than those three including…plasmas, superfluids, supersolids, Bose-Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, liquid crystals, strange matter and quark-gluon plasmas
13 Phase Changes What goes on during a phase change? Transition from one phase of matter to anotherWhat goes on during a phase change?At a given pressure, phase changes:usually occur at a definite temperature*heat is absorbed or releasedthere is a change in volume of the matterthere is a change in density of the matter*At this temperature and pressure both phases of matter can coexist, this is called phase equilibrium.
14 Heat Required per unit mass Types of Phase ChangesPhase ChangeProcessExampleHeat Required per unit massSolid LiquidMetal gallium melts in your handLatent Heat of Fusion (Lf)Liquid SolidWater freezes GasLiquid Nitrogen boils at room temp.Latent Heat of Vaporization (Lv)GasWater vapor condensesDry Ice (CO2) sublimes to its gaseous phase at room tempLatent Heat of Sublimation (Ls)Frost forms on cold objectsTo melt a mass m of material that has a heat of fusion Lf requires a heat Q given by:To freeze a mass m of material that has a heat of fusion Lf requires a heat Q given by:
15 A Closer look at Phase Changes To cause a phase change energy must be absorbed or released by the object/system. During the phase change the heat energy does not change the temperature of the object.
16 DO The DewA physics student wants to cool 0.25 kg of Mountain Dew (mostly water and high fructose corn syrup) initially at 20oC by adding ice initially at -20oC. How much ice should she add so that the final temperature will be 0oC with all the ice melted? Assume that the heat capacity of the container may be neglected.
17 Heat Transfer There are three mechanisms of heat transfer. Radiation ConvectionConduction
18 RadiationEnergy transfer through electromagnetic radiation (fancy words for light)Ex.
19 Convection Energy transfer of heat by the motion of a mass of fluid Ex.
20 Conductionheat transfer through a material from regions of higher temperatures to regions of lower temperaturesGood thermal conductors are metals because they have many free electronsEx.Rate of Heat Transfer…Heat Current (H)
21 Rate of Heat Transfer (H) The rate of heat transfer through a material with regions of varying temperatures is:proportional to the cross sectional area A.proportional to the temperature difference ΔT.inversely proportional to the distance between the regions L.The constant of proportionality is the thermal conductivity of the material k.
22 Cooler ConductionThe StyrofoamTM box seen below is used to keep drinks cold at a picnic (or wild beach party whatever suits your taste). The total area of the sides, top, and bottom is 0.80 m2, and the wall thickness is 2.0 cm. The box is filled with ice and Root Beer, keeping the inner surface at 0oC. What is the rate of heat flow into the box if the temperature of the outside surface is 30oC? How much ice melts in one day (24 hr.)?Materialk (W/(m·K)Silver406Copper385StyrofoamTM0.01Wood0.12 – 0.04Air0.024
23 Conduction In SeriesA steel bar 10.0 cm long is welded end to end to a copper bar cm long. Each bar has a square cross section, 2.00 cm on a side. The free end of the steel bar is in contact with steam at 100oC, and the free end of the copper bar is in contact with ice at 0oC. Find the temperature at the junction of the two bars and the total rate of heat flow.Materialk (W/(m·K)Steel50.2Copper385
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