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© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 1.5 Vectors and Motion: A First Look© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Scalars and Vectors When a physical quantity is described by a single number (with a unit), we call it a scalar quantity. A vector quantity is a quantity that has both a size (How far? or How fast?) and a direction (Which way?). The size or length of a vector is called its magnitude. We graphically represent a vector as an arrow. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Changes in Position and DisplacementA change of position is called a displacement. Displacement is the difference between a final position and an initial position: © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Displacement Vectors The displacement vector represents the distance and direction of an object’s motion. An object’s displacement vector is drawn from the object’s initial position to its final position, regardless of the actual path followed between these two points. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
QuickCheck 1.4 Maria is at position x = 23 m. She then undergoes a displacement x = –50 m. What is her final position? –27 m –50 m 23 m 73 m Answer: A © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
QuickCheck 1.4 Maria is at position x = 23 m. She then undergoes a displacement x = –50 m. What is her final position? –27 m –50 m 23 m 73 m © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Vector Addition The net displacement for a trip with two legs is the sum of the two displacements that made it up. Text: p. 17 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
QuickCheck 1.6 Given vectors and , what is ? Answer: A© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
QuickCheck 1.6 Given vectors and , what is ? A. 10© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 10
QuickCheck 1.5 An ant zig-zags back and forth on a picnic table as shown. The ant’s distance traveled and displacement are 50 cm and 50 cm 30 cm and 50 cm 50 cm and 30 cm 50 cm and –50 cm 50 cm and –30 cm Answer: E © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 11
QuickCheck 1.5 An ant zig-zags back and forth on a picnic table as shown. The ant’s distance traveled and displacement are 50 cm and 50 cm 30 cm and 50 cm 50 cm and 30 cm 50 cm and –50 cm 50 cm and –30 cm © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 12
Example 1.7 How far away is Anna?Anna walks 90 m due east and then 50 m due north. What is her displacement from her starting point? prepare Let’s start with the sketch in FIGURE 1.25a. We set up a coordinate system with Anna’s original position as the origin, and then we drew her two subsequent motions as the two displacement vectors © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 1.7 How far away is Anna? (cont.)solve We drew the two vector displacements with the tail of one vector starting at the head of the previous one—exactly what is needed to form a vector sum. The vector net in FIGURE 1.25a is the vector sum of the successive displacements and thus represents Anna’s net displacement from the origin. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 1.7 How far away is Anna? (cont.)Anna’s distance from the origin is the length of this vector net. FIGURE 1.25b shows that this vector is the hypotenuse of a right triangle with sides 50 m (because Anna walked 50 m north) and 90 m (because she walked 90 m east). We can compute the magnitude of this vector, her net displacement, using the Pythagorean theorem (the square of the length of the hypotenuse of a triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the sides): © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 1.7 How far away is Anna? (cont.)We have rounded off to the appropriate number of significant figures, giving us 100 m for the magnitude of the displacement vector. How about the direction? Figure 1.25b identifies the angle that gives the angle north of east of Anna’s displacement. In the right triangle, 50 m is the opposite side and 90 m is the adjacent side, so the angle is given by Putting it all together, we get a net displacement of © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 1.7 How far away is Anna? (cont.)assess We can use our drawing to assess our result. If the two sides of the triangle are 50 m and 90 m, a length of 100 m for the hypotenuse seems about right. The angle is certainly less than 45°, but not too much less, so 29° seems reasonable. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reading Question 1.5 Velocity vectors pointIn the same direction as displacement vectors. In the opposite direction as displacement vectors. Perpendicular to displacement vectors. In the same direction as acceleration vectors. Velocity is not represented by a vector. Answer: A © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Reading Question 1.5 Velocity vectors pointIn the same direction as displacement vectors. In the opposite direction as displacement vectors. Perpendicular to displacement vectors. In the same direction as acceleration vectors. Velocity is not represented by a vector. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 1.4 A Sense of Scale: Significant Figures, Scientific Notation, and Units © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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