2CHAPTER 1: NUTRITION: EVERYDAY CHOICES LEARNING OBJECTIVESAt the end of this chapter, you should be able to:Reflect on factors that influence food choicesCompare and contrast the 6 nutrient classesDescribe ways to obtain balance, variety, and moderation to avoid under- and overnutritionDescribe how genes and diet interact to promote health and result in diseaseEvaluate nutrition information and claims
3THINK about this – then share within a PAIR – then SHARE with the class What are nutrients? Why do we need them?What are the benefits and risks of consuming calories?What is one high-calorie food and one low-calorie food you consumed recently?
4Nutrients Provide energy (calories = measure of energy) Provide structureRegulate body processesEssential nutrients: our bodies cannot make them, so it is essential that we consume them
5Nutrient DensityHigh nutrient density foods: contain more nutrients per calorieExamples: cake, sugary drinks, French friesLow nutrient density foods: contain fewer nutrients per calorieExamples: vegetables, fruits, whole-grains
8Apply to your lifeWhat are examples of low nutrient density foods in your diet?What are examples of high nutrient density foods in your diet?How could you replace high nutrient density foods with low nutrient density foods in your diet?
9Fortified foods Nutrients added to foods Mandated by the federal government in attempt to eliminate nutrient deficiencies in CanadaVitamins and minerals are routinely added to various foods at the discretion of manufacturers
10Dietary supplements Supplement the diet May include nutrients (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids), enzymes, herbs, or other substances
11Concept CheckWhich has a higher nutrient density, a can of pop or a glass of milk?Why are foods fortified?Why is it better to meet your vitamin C needs by eating an orange than by taking a dietary supplement?What factors determine which foods you eat at a family picnic?
12THINK about this – then share within a PAIR – then SHARE with the class Think about foods you have consumed in the last week. What influenced your choices?What is the strangest food you have consumed (by Canadian standards)?Describe a celebration in your family. Who would be there? What would you do?
13THINK about this – then share within a PAIR – then SHARE with the class What are examples of nutrients?
14Six classes of nutrients WaterCarbohydratesProteinsFatsVitaminsMineralsMacronutrientsMicronutrients
15Six classes of nutrients Organic compounds: substances that contain carbon bonded to hydrogen in their molecular structureInclude: carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
16Six classes of nutrients Carbohydrates: include sugars, starches, and fibre; contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygenLipids (fats): include cholesterol, saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and unsaturated fats; contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygenTriglycerides, most common lipids are composed of glycerol and fatty acidsProteins: are composed of amino acids; contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
17Six classes of nutrients Vitamins: organic molecules needed in small quantities; play role in regulation of energy production, maintenance of vision, blood clotting, etc.Minerals: essential elements; perform variety of functions including transport of oxygen (iron), muscle contraction (calcium), etc.
18What are similarities and differences between: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, vitamins, and minerals?
20Examples of nutrientsb. High-fat plant foods such as vegetable oils, olives, nuts, and avocados have no cholesterol and are high in unsaturated fat and are not associated with an increased risk of heart disease. High-fat animal foods such as butter, meat, and whole milk are high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Diets high in saturated fats are associated with an increased risk of heart disease.Tetra Imagers/Getty Images
21Examples of nutrientsc. The proteins we obtain from animal foods, such as meat, fish, and eggs, better match our amino acid needs than do individual plant proteins, such as those found in grains, nuts, and beans. However, when plant proteins are combined, they can provide all the amino acids we need.
22Nutrient functions Provide energy (calories) Provide building blocks for body’s structureBones, hair, muscle, skin, etc.Cellular membranes, other cellular componentsRegulate body processesBody temperatureBlood pressureBlood sugar levelOther
23Calorie (with a capital “C”) Calorie = kilocalorie (kcal) = 1000 caloriesMeasure of energy in foodProteins and carbohydrates = 4 kcal/gramFat = 9 kcal/gramAlcohol = 7 kcal/gram (not a nutrient)Water, minerals and vitamins do not provide energy (calories)
25Phytochemicals and zoochemicals Non-nutrient substances in food thought to be beneficial to the human body:Phytochemicals present in foods from plants(phyto refers to plants)Zoochemicals present in foods from animals(zoo refers to animals)
29Designer foods/neutraceuticals Functional foods with added nutrients have also been called designer foods or neutraceuticalsExamples:Water with added vitaminsMargarine with added plant sterolsOrange juice with added calcium
30Concept Check Which classes of nutrients provide energy? What three nutrient functions help ensure normal growth, maintenance of body structure and functions, and reproduction?
31MalnutritionMalnutrition: a condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimalOvernutrition: excess intake of a nutrient, nutrients or caloriesANDUndernutrition: inadequate intake of a nutrient, nutrients or calories
32Undernutritiona. Even though this child looks normal and healthy, she has low iron stores. If the iron content of her diet is not increased, she will eventually develop iron deficiency anemia. Mild nutrient deficiencies like hers may go unnoticed because the symptoms either are not immediately apparent or are nonspecific. Two common nonspecific symptoms of iron depletion are fatigue and a decreased ability to fight infection.
33Undernutritionb. The symptoms of starvation, the most obvious form of undernutrition, occur gradually over time when the energy provided by the diet is too low to meet the body’s needs. Body tissues are broken down to provide the energy to support vital functions, resulting in loss of body fat and wasting of muscles.
35OvernutritionThe top three causes of death in Canada are nutrition related. They are all thought to be exacerbated by obesity
36THINK about this – then share within a PAIR – then SHARE with the class What is DNA? Where is it located?What is a chromosome? What is a gene?How are traits inherited?
37Diet-gene interaction Diet affects your health but diet alone does not determine whether you will develop a particular diseaseSome genes (specific segments of DNA that are responsible for determining specific inherited traits) can increase, other decrease your risk of developing certain diseases
38Disease genetics Some diseases occur when one gene is mutated Examples: cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemiaMost diseases result from both genetics and the environmental influences where genes increase riskExamples: obesity, heart disease, diabetes
49Apply to your lifeWhat are examples of balance, variety, and moderation from your diet?How you could improve your diet?
50Concept Check Why is variety in a diet important? How might you balance the 600-kilocalorie Cinnamon roll you had for a morning snack with your lunch choice?What is the connection between obesity and moderation in a diet?
51Healthy diets & recommendations are based on research How are studies conducted?How do we know which information to believe and which advice to follow?
52Science of nutrition–scientific method Make an observationPropose a hypothesisDesign & conduct experiment to test hypothesisAnalyze resultsPublish & present with peer reviewRepeat and expand experimentsDevelop theories based on results from many experiments
54Apply to your life Make an observation example: I received 3 compliments on my hair cutPropose a hypothesis: make a prediction based on your observationexample: my hair looks good when it is short; it will look better if it is even shorterWhat information would you need to test this hypothesis? How could you gather it?example: cut hair shorter and record comments
55Apply to your lifeMake an observation about college student nutrition habitsexample: there is a lot of bottled water in classPropose a hypothesis: make a prediction based on your observationexample: college students drink more bottled water than tap waterWhat information would you need to test this hypothesis? How could you gather it?
56Science of nutrition-types of studies Epidemiological: studies populationsExample: consumption of fish & heart disease in Japanese people versus North AmericansExperimental: compares an experimental group with a control groupExample: experimental group drinks takes supplement and control group takes placeboLaboratory: cells, animals, or humans are studied using biochemistry and molecular biology techniques within a laboratoryExample: food administered and blood glucose tested
62Questions to ask about nutrition data Does it make sense?What’s the source?What evidence is being presented?Is it selling something
63How involved should the government DebateHow involved should the governmentbe in your food choices?
64Concept CheckWhat is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?How is epidemiology used to study nutrition?Why are control groups important in any scientific experiment?Why is information in advertisements likely to be exaggerated or inaccurate?
65Checking student learning outcomes What influences food choices?How are the 6 nutrient classes similar and different?How can you obtain variety, balance, and moderation in your diet to avoid malnutrition?Which diet-related diseases run in your family? How can you modify your risk?What questions can you ask to help determine if data can be trusted?