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Nutrition: Everyday Choices

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1 Nutrition: Everyday Choices
Chapter 1: Nutrition: Everyday Choices

LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Reflect on factors that influence food choices Compare and contrast the 6 nutrient classes Describe ways to obtain balance, variety, and moderation to avoid under- and overnutrition Describe how genes and diet interact to promote health and result in disease Evaluate nutrition information and claims

3 THINK about this – then share within a PAIR – then SHARE with the class
What are nutrients? Why do we need them? What are the benefits and risks of consuming calories? What is one high-calorie food and one low-calorie food you consumed recently?

4 Nutrients Provide energy (calories = measure of energy)
Provide structure Regulate body processes Essential nutrients: our bodies cannot make them, so it is essential that we consume them

5 Nutrient Density High nutrient density foods: contain more nutrients per calorie Examples: cake, sugary drinks, French fries Low nutrient density foods: contain fewer nutrients per calorie Examples: vegetables, fruits, whole-grains

6 Nutrient Density

7 Nutrient Density

8 Apply to your life What are examples of low nutrient density foods in your diet? What are examples of high nutrient density foods in your diet? How could you replace high nutrient density foods with low nutrient density foods in your diet?

9 Fortified foods Nutrients added to foods
Mandated by the federal government in attempt to eliminate nutrient deficiencies in Canada Vitamins and minerals are routinely added to various foods at the discretion of manufacturers

10 Dietary supplements Supplement the diet
May include nutrients (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids), enzymes, herbs, or other substances

11 Concept Check Which has a higher nutrient density, a can of pop or a glass of milk? Why are foods fortified? Why is it better to meet your vitamin C needs by eating an orange than by taking a dietary supplement? What factors determine which foods you eat at a family picnic?

12 THINK about this – then share within a PAIR – then SHARE with the class
Think about foods you have consumed in the last week. What influenced your choices? What is the strangest food you have consumed (by Canadian standards)? Describe a celebration in your family. Who would be there? What would you do?

13 THINK about this – then share within a PAIR – then SHARE with the class
What are examples of nutrients?

14 Six classes of nutrients
Water Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Macronutrients Micronutrients

15 Six classes of nutrients
Organic compounds: substances that contain carbon bonded to hydrogen in their molecular structure Include: carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

16 Six classes of nutrients
Carbohydrates: include sugars, starches, and fibre; contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Lipids (fats): include cholesterol, saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and unsaturated fats; contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Triglycerides, most common lipids are composed of glycerol and fatty acids Proteins: are composed of amino acids; contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

17 Six classes of nutrients
Vitamins: organic molecules needed in small quantities; play role in regulation of energy production, maintenance of vision, blood clotting, etc. Minerals: essential elements; perform variety of functions including transport of oxygen (iron), muscle contraction (calcium), etc.

18 What are similarities and differences between:
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, vitamins, and minerals?

19 Examples of nutrients a. Some high-carbohydrate foods, such as rice, pasta, and bread, contain mostly starch; some, such as berries, kidney beans, and broccoli, are high in fibre; and others, such as cookies, cakes, and carbonated beverages, are high in added sugar. Vegetables and fruits are often overlooked as carbohydrates, but are excellent sources of carbohydrate that also provide vitamins, minerals, water, and fibre. High-fibre, vitamin- and mineral-rich, low-sugar foods have a higher nutrient density than do low-fibre, high-sugar foods. © Can Stock Photo Inc. / robynmac

20 Examples of nutrients b. High-fat plant foods such as vegetable oils, olives, nuts, and avocados have no cholesterol and are high in unsaturated fat and are not associated with an increased risk of heart disease. High-fat animal foods such as butter, meat, and whole milk are high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Diets high in saturated fats are associated with an increased risk of heart disease. Tetra Imagers/Getty Images

21 Examples of nutrients c. The proteins we obtain from animal foods, such as meat, fish, and eggs, better match our amino acid needs than do individual plant proteins, such as those found in grains, nuts, and beans. However, when plant proteins are combined, they can provide all the amino acids we need.

22 Nutrient functions Provide energy (calories)
Provide building blocks for body’s structure Bones, hair, muscle, skin, etc. Cellular membranes, other cellular components Regulate body processes Body temperature Blood pressure Blood sugar level Other

23 Calorie (with a capital “C”)
Calorie = kilocalorie (kcal) = 1000 calories Measure of energy in food Proteins and carbohydrates = 4 kcal/gram Fat = 9 kcal/gram Alcohol = 7 kcal/gram (not a nutrient) Water, minerals and vitamins do not provide energy (calories)

24 Nutrient functions © Can Stock Photo Inc. /KAValles

25 Phytochemicals and zoochemicals
Non-nutrient substances in food thought to be beneficial to the human body: Phytochemicals present in foods from plants (phyto refers to plants) Zoochemicals present in foods from animals (zoo refers to animals)

26 Phytochemicals

27 Functional foods/neutraceuticals
Functional foods: have health-promoting and/or disease-preventing properties beyond basic nutritional functions

28 Examples of functional foods

29 Designer foods/neutraceuticals
Functional foods with added nutrients have also been called designer foods or neutraceuticals Examples: Water with added vitamins Margarine with added plant sterols Orange juice with added calcium

30 Concept Check Which classes of nutrients provide energy?
What three nutrient functions help ensure normal growth, maintenance of body structure and functions, and reproduction?

31 Malnutrition Malnutrition: a condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal Overnutrition: excess intake of a nutrient, nutrients or calories AND Undernutrition: inadequate intake of a nutrient, nutrients or calories

32 Undernutrition a. Even though this child looks normal and healthy, she has low iron stores. If the iron content of her diet is not increased, she will eventually develop iron deficiency anemia. Mild nutrient deficiencies like hers may go unnoticed because the symptoms either are not immediately apparent or are nonspecific. Two common nonspecific symptoms of iron depletion are fatigue and a decreased ability to fight infection.

33 Undernutrition b. The symptoms of starvation, the most obvious form of undernutrition, occur gradually over time when the energy provided by the diet is too low to meet the body’s needs. Body tissues are broken down to provide the energy to support vital functions, resulting in loss of body fat and wasting of muscles.

34 Overnutrition a. Obesity is a form of overnutrition that occurs when energy intake surpasses energy expenditure over a long period, causing the accumulation of an excessive amount of body fat. Adults are not the only ones who are getting larger. It is estimated that just over 30% of Canadian children and adolescents ages 2 to 17 years are overweight. © Can Stock Photo Inc./stu99

35 Overnutrition The top three causes of death in Canada are nutrition related. They are all thought to be exacerbated by obesity

36 THINK about this – then share within a PAIR – then SHARE with the class
What is DNA? Where is it located? What is a chromosome? What is a gene? How are traits inherited?

37 Diet-gene interaction
Diet affects your health but diet alone does not determine whether you will develop a particular disease Some genes (specific segments of DNA that are responsible for determining specific inherited traits) can increase, other decrease your risk of developing certain diseases

38 Disease genetics Some diseases occur when one gene is mutated
Examples: cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia Most diseases result from both genetics and the environmental influences where genes increase risk Examples: obesity, heart disease, diabetes

39 Disease genetics

40 Ask yourself What 2 factors affect your risk of developing a nutrition-related disease such as obesity? Can you still become obese even if both of your parents are thin?

41 Nutritional genetics or nutrigenomics
The study of interactions between genes and nutrition Personalized nutrition: diets based on a person’s genes

42 THINK about this – then share within a PAIR – then SHARE with the class
A friend of yours wants advice on what to eat as a healthy diet. What advice would you give?

43 Concept Check What causes malnutrition?
How can your diet today affect your health 20 years from now? Why might the diet that optimizes health be different for different people?

44 Healthy diet Variety, Balance, Moderation High in: Moderate in:
Fruits, vegetables, whole grains Moderate in: Calories, sodium, sugar Low in: Unhealthy fats (trans fats, saturated fats, cholesterol

45 Variety Eating foods from a variety of food groups
Eating a variety of foods within each food group Benefits: increased nutrients and phytochemicals, decreased toxins

46 Balance Balance less healthy foods with healthy ones
Balance calories intake with calories burned Balance diverse foods within food groups Benefits: wider variety of nutrients and weight control

47 Moderation Moderate portion sizes
Moderate consumption of fat, sugar, and sodium Moderate calories intake Benefits: not too much of any nutrient or calories

48 Healthy diet Andy Washnik © Can Stock Photo Inc. / monkeybusiness
© Can Stock Photo Inc. / charlesknox

49 Apply to your life What are examples of balance, variety, and moderation from your diet? How you could improve your diet?

50 Concept Check Why is variety in a diet important?
How might you balance the 600-kilocalorie Cinnamon roll you had for a morning snack with your lunch choice? What is the connection between obesity and moderation in a diet?

51 Healthy diets & recommendations are based on research
How are studies conducted? How do we know which information to believe and which advice to follow?

52 Science of nutrition–scientific method
Make an observation Propose a hypothesis Design & conduct experiment to test hypothesis Analyze results Publish & present with peer review Repeat and expand experiments Develop theories based on results from many experiments

53 Science of nutrition–scientific method

54 Apply to your life Make an observation
example: I received 3 compliments on my hair cut Propose a hypothesis: make a prediction based on your observation example: my hair looks good when it is short; it will look better if it is even shorter What information would you need to test this hypothesis? How could you gather it? example: cut hair shorter and record comments

55 Apply to your life Make an observation about college student nutrition habits example: there is a lot of bottled water in class Propose a hypothesis: make a prediction based on your observation example: college students drink more bottled water than tap water What information would you need to test this hypothesis? How could you gather it?

56 Science of nutrition-types of studies
Epidemiological: studies populations Example: consumption of fish & heart disease in Japanese people versus North Americans Experimental: compares an experimental group with a control group Example: experimental group drinks takes supplement and control group takes placebo Laboratory: cells, animals, or humans are studied using biochemistry and molecular biology techniques within a laboratory Example: food administered and blood glucose tested

57 Science of nutrition- epidemiological evidence

58 What are similarities and differences between:
Hypothesis and theory? Epidemiological, experimental, and laboratory studies? Experimental group and control group?

59 Types of nutritional information

60 Types of nutritional information

61 Limitations of nutritional studies
© Cicak

62 Questions to ask about nutrition data
Does it make sense? What’s the source? What evidence is being presented? Is it selling something

63 How involved should the government
Debate How involved should the government be in your food choices?

64 Concept Check What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? How is epidemiology used to study nutrition? Why are control groups important in any scientific experiment? Why is information in advertisements likely to be exaggerated or inaccurate?

65 Checking student learning outcomes
What influences food choices? How are the 6 nutrient classes similar and different? How can you obtain variety, balance, and moderation in your diet to avoid malnutrition? Which diet-related diseases run in your family? How can you modify your risk? What questions can you ask to help determine if data can be trusted?

66 COPYRIGHT Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (The Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

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