DEFINITION A pronoun (I, me, he, she, herself, you, it, that, they, each, few, many, who, whoever, whose, someone, everybody, etc.) is a word that takes the place of a noun. The antecedent is the noun [or other pronoun] being replaced.
RULE 1. Rule 1. Subject pronouns are used when the pronoun is the subject of the sentence. Example: She is tired Despite being told no, he jumped on the bed.
RULE 2. Subject pronouns are also used if they rename the subject. Examples: This is she speaking. It is we who are responsible for the decision to downsize.
RULE 3. Object pronouns are used everywhere else beyond Rules 1 and 2 Object pronouns include: me, him, herself, us, them, themselves, etc. Examples: Jean saw him. (Him is the direct object.) Give her the book.(Her is the indirect object) Are you talking to me? Me is the object of the preposition to.
RULE 4 A pronoun must agree with its antecedent.in number and gender Example: The dog dog licked its its ear. The dogs dogs licked their eyeballs. dog = dog = singular antecedent its its = singular pronoun Dogs = Dogs = plural antecedent their their = plural pronoun
KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE SINGULAR AND PLURAL PRONOUNS. Singular He, she, it Him, her, it His, hers, its Himself, herself, itself Singular He, she, it Him, her, it His, hers, its Himself, herself, itself Plural They Them Their, theirs Themselves Plural They Them Their, theirs Themselves
RULE 5. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural depending on the subject. If the subject is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb. Example: He is the only one of those men who is always on time. The word who refers to one. Therefore, use the singular verb is. Example: He is one of those men who are always on time. The word who refers to men. Therefore, use the plural verb are.
RULE 6 When each or every precedes two [or more] singular things joined by and, a singular antecedent is formed Each dog and cat sings well. Every student, teacher, dog, cat, and alligator is capable of doing the job.
Two [or more] singular things joined by and become a plural antecedent Ex: The dog and cat are happy, and THEY went outside. RULE 7
RULE 8 Use caution with these three conjunctions: either … or, neither … nor, and not only … but also. Of the two antecedents in the sentence, the pronoun must agree with the closer one
HERE ARE TWO EXAMPLES: + = Not only Louise but also the Smiths fixed their famous squid eyeball stew for the picnic. Not only Louise but also the Smiths fixed their famous squid eyeball stew for the picnic. Not only the Smiths but also Louise fixed her famous squid eyeball stew for the picnic. Not only the Smiths but also Louise fixed her famous squid eyeball stew for the picnic.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Indefinite Pronouns refer generally, not specifically, to persons, places, or things. These indefinite pronouns are always singular [even when they seem plural Each, either, neither Anyone, anybody, anything Everyone, everybody, everything No one, nobody, nothing Someone, somebody, something Each, either, neither Anyone, anybody, anything Everyone, everybody, everything No one, nobody, nothing Someone, somebody, something
SINGULAR EXAMPLE What is wrong with this sentence? Neither of my two brothers show much sense when they date women. Instead, it should be: Neither of my two brothers shows much sense when he dates women. [ Neither = singular.]
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: BOTH : Some indefinite pronouns are singular or plural, depending on context