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What is a sentence fragment? How to fix a sentence fragment Review A Review B Correcting Sentence Fragments.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a sentence fragment? How to fix a sentence fragment Review A Review B Correcting Sentence Fragments."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a sentence fragment? How to fix a sentence fragment Review A Review B Correcting Sentence Fragments

2 Not all “sentences” are created equal. Look at the following two groups of words: The weeds grew. Because of the rain. They both begin with a capital letter. They both end with a period. The weeds grew. Because of the rain. The second does not express a complete thought. It is a sentence fragment. BUT The weeds grew. Because of the rain. Fragment What is a sentence fragment?

3 A sentence fragment does not have all the basic parts of a complete sentence.complete sentence Reached the campsite early. Examples Because the tent had a leak in it. The ground muddy and wet after the storm. What is a sentence fragment? Fragments do not express a complete thought and are missing important information. No subject Not a complete thought No verb

4 A complete sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Subject Some species are in danger. Scientists study these animals. Verb Subject Verb Some species are in danger. Scientists study these animals. Some species are in danger. What is a sentence fragment? Complete sentence

5 To identify sentence fragments, use a simple test: 1.Does the group of words have a subject? If the answer to any of these questions is no, you have a fragment. 2.Does it have a verb? 3.Does it express a complete thought? What is a sentence fragment?

6 Here’s another test to identify sentence fragments.* Fragment Plug the word group into the frame “I know that.” If the statement makes sense, the word group is a complete sentence. If not, then it is a fragment. She likes music.I know that she likes music. Sentence Playing a guitar. I know that playing a guitar. *Source: Linguist Rei Noguchi

7 Apply the test to the following group of words: The bird sat on a high branch. Yes The bird sat on a high branch. What is a sentence fragment? 1.Does the group of words have a subject? 2.Does it have a verb? 3.Does it express a complete thought? Sentence

8 What is a sentence fragment? Don’t be fooled by words that look like verbs but really aren’t. A word that ends in -ing cannot stand as a verb unless it has a helping verb (such as is, are, or were) with it. The hamster running in his wheel. Fragment The hamster is running in his wheel. Sentence

9 Apply the test to the following group of words: After the train left the station. What is a sentence fragment? Yes No 1.Does the group of words have a subject? 2.Does it have a verb? 3.Does it express a complete thought? Fragment What happened after the train left the station?

10 1.Took our telescope with us. 2.Mr. Yang a perfect clearing on the mountain. 4.Because the sky was clear that night. Identify which of the following are sentence fragments. Be prepared to explain your answer. What is a sentence fragment? 3.We watched the meteor shower from there.

11 The group of words is a fragment because it has no subject and does not express a complete thought. 1.Took our telescope with us. Fragment Subject: Verb: No Yes. Took. Complete thought:No What is a sentence fragment? Identify which of the following are sentence fragments. Be prepared to explain your answer.

12 The group of words is a fragment because it has no verb and does not express a complete thought. Fragment Subject: Verb: Yes. Mr. Yang. No Complete thought:No What is a sentence fragment? Identify which of the following are sentence fragments. Be prepared to explain your answer. 2.Mr. Yang a perfect clearing on the mountain.

13 The group of words is a sentence because it has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Sentence Subject: Verb: Yes. We. Yes. Watched. Complete thought:Yes What is a sentence fragment? Identify which of the following are sentence fragments. Be prepared to explain your answer. 3.We watched the meteor shower from there.

14 The group of words is a fragment. Although it has a subject and a verb, it does not express a complete thought. Fragment Subject: Verb: Yes. Sky. Yes. Was. Complete thought:No What is a sentence fragment? Identify which of the following are sentence fragments. Be prepared to explain your answer. 4.Because the sky was clear that night.

15 On Your Own [End of Section] Determine whether each group of words is a fragment or a complete sentence. If the item is a complete sentence, write C. If the item is a fragment, write F. If the item is a fragment, write an S if it’s missing a subject, a V if it’s missing a verb, or an I if it expresses an incomplete thought. ___ 1.Some Asian flying squirrels three feet long. ___ 2.Flying squirrels can glide through the air. ___ 3.Leap from one tree to another. ___ 4.If they start high up in the tree. What is a sentence fragment?

16 Determine whether each group of words is a fragment or a complete sentence. If the item is a complete sentence, write C. If the item is a fragment, write F. If the item is a fragment, write an S if it’s missing a subject, a V if it’s missing a verb, or an I if it expresses an incomplete thought. ___ 1.Some Asian flying squirrels three feet long. ___ 2.Flying squirrels can glide through the air. ___ 3.Leap from one tree to another. ___ 4.If they start high up in the tree. Answers F-V C F-S What is a sentence fragment? F-I

17 No subject. Who fed her? No subject. Who cared for the zebra? To fix a sentence fragment, first figure out which piece is missing. How to fix a sentence fragment Add a subject Cared for the sick zebra. The zookeepercared for the sick zebra. If the word group is missing a subject, add a subject to make it into a complete sentence. Every day fed her a special food.hefed her a special food.Every day FragmentComplete sentence Fragment Complete sentence

18 How to fix a sentence fragment Add a verb If a fragment is missing a verb, add a verb to make it into a complete sentence. No verb. What did the leaf do slowly? The leaf slowly down the stream.floatedslowly down the stream.The leaf Fragment Complete sentence No verb. What will the leaves do soon? More leaves from the trees soon.will fallfrom the trees soon.More leaves Fragment Complete sentence

19 Determine what part is missing from each sentence fragment below. If the subject is missing, write S. If the verb is missing, write V. Then change the fragment into a complete sentence by adding the missing part. ___ 1.Play in the yard every day. How to fix a sentence fragment ___ 2.The rain from the edge of the roof. ___ 3.Waited at the bus stop for an hour. ___ 4.The dog happily the ball.

20 ___ 1.Play in the back yard every day. How to fix a sentence fragment Possible Answer Determine what part is missing from each sentence fragment below. If the subject is missing, write S. If the verb is missing, write V. Then change the fragment into a complete sentence by adding the missing part. ___ 1.The squirrels play in the yard every day. S S The subject is missing. What play in the yard? Add a subject to make a complete sentence.

21 How to fix a sentence fragment Possible Answer ___ 2.The rain from the edge of the roof. V ___ 2.The rain dripped from the edge of the roof. V Determine what part is missing from each sentence fragment below. If the subject is missing, write S. If the verb is missing, write V. Then change the fragment into a complete sentence by adding the missing part. The verb is missing. What did the rain do? Add a verb to make a complete sentence.

22 How to fix a sentence fragment Possible Answer ___ 3.Waited at the bus stop for an hour. S ___ 3.The family waited at the bus stop for an hour. S Determine what part is missing from each sentence fragment below. If the subject is missing, write S. If the verb is missing, write V. Then change the fragment into a complete sentence by adding the missing part. The subject is missing. Who waited? Add a subject to make a complete sentence.

23 ___ 4.The dog happily the ball. ___ 4. The dog happily fetched the ball. V How to fix a sentence fragment Possible Answer V Determine what part is missing from each sentence fragment below. If the subject is missing, write S. If the verb is missing, write V. Then change the fragment into a complete sentence by adding the missing part. The verb is missing. What did the dog do with the ball? Add a verb to make a complete sentence.

24 On Your Own Determine whether each group of words is a fragment (F) or a complete sentence (C). If the item is a fragment, make it into a complete sentence by adding the missing subject or verb. ___ 1.Wants to send a postcard to her aunt. ___ 2.June is visiting the museum today. ___ 3.Mr. Leonard the field trip carefully. ___ 4. Lucio wants to see the planetarium. How to fix a sentence fragment

25 Possible Answers How to fix a sentence fragment Determine whether each group of words is a fragment (F) or a complete sentence (C). If the item is a fragment, make it into a complete sentence by adding the missing subject or verb. ___ 1.Wants to send a postcard to her aunt. ___ 2.June is visiting the museum today. ___ 3.Mr. Leonard the field trip carefully. ___ 4. Lucio wants to see the planetarium. F C F Mr. Leonard planned the field trip carefully. Shana wants to send a postcard to her aunt. C

26 Sometimes you can fix a sentence fragment by attaching it to a complete sentence. Until the sun went down.They played football. How to fix a sentence fragment Attach the fragment to a complete sentence + FragmentComplete sentence They played football until the sun went down. = Not a complete thought Complete sentence

27 Sometimes you can fix a sentence fragment by attaching it to a complete sentence. Before the game began.We bought some snacks. How to fix a sentence fragment Attach the fragment to a complete sentence + FragmentComplete sentence Before the game began, we bought some snacks. = Not a complete thought Complete sentence

28 Each item contains one fragment and one complete sentence. Label the fragment F and the complete sentence C. Then combine the two to make one complete sentence. 1.___ If you receive a gift. ___ You should send a thank-you note. 2.___ My father is energetic. ___ Because he eats healthful foods. 3.___ Before I brought the puppy home. ___ I bought a dog bed and some food. How to fix a sentence fragment

29 Each item contains one fragment and one complete sentence. Label the fragment F and the complete sentence C. Then combine the two to make one complete sentence. 1.___ If you receive a gift. ___ You should send a thank-you note. If you receive a gift, you should send a thank-you note. F C You should send a thank-you note if you receive a gift. OR

30 How to fix a sentence fragment Each item contains one fragment and one complete sentence. Label the fragment F and the complete sentence C. Then combine the two to make one complete sentence. My father is energetic because he eats healthful foods. F C Because he eats healthful foods, my father is energetic. OR 2.___ My father is energetic. ___ Because he eats healthful foods.

31 How to fix a sentence fragment Each item contains one fragment and one complete sentence. Label the fragment F and the complete sentence C. Then combine the two to make one complete sentence. Before I brought the puppy home, I bought a dog bed and some food. F C I bought a dog bed and some food before I brought the puppy home. OR 3.___ Before I brought the puppy home. ___ I bought a dog bed and some food.

32 [End of Section] How to fix a sentence fragment On Your Own Identify the sentence fragments in the following paragraph. Then fix each fragment by attaching it to a complete sentence. Change capitalization and punctuation wherever necessary. The weather cleared. While we were driving to the campground. We traveled for hours. When we arrived at our campsite. Mom and I set up the tent. My sister hiked to the river with her friend. As the sun set. We cooked bean soup over the fire.

33 How to fix a sentence fragment Possible Answer Identify the sentence fragments in the following paragraph. Then fix each fragment by attaching it to a complete sentence. Change capitalization and punctuation wherever necessary. The weather cleared. While we were driving to the campground. We traveled for hours. When we arrived at our campsite. Mom and I set up the tent. My sister hiked to the river with her friend. As the sun set. We cooked bean soup over the fire. The weather cleared while we were driving to the campground. We traveled for hours. When we arrived at our campsite, Mom and I set up the tent. My sister hiked to the river with her friend. As the sun set, we cooked bean soup over the fire.

34 [End of Section] Identify each word group as a sentence fragment (F) or a complete sentence (C). ___ 1.Jenna the back door open. ___ 2.The geese fly south in winter. ___ 3.Walks the dog after dinner each evening. ___ 4.Someone broke the lock. ___ 5.Because the ground freezes at night. Review A

35 Identify each word group as a sentence fragment (F) or a complete sentence (C). ___ 1.Jenna the back door open. ___ 2.The geese fly south in winter. ___ 3.Walks the dog after dinner each evening. ___ 4.Someone broke the lock. ___ 5.Because the ground freezes at night. F C F C F

36 [End of Section] Revise each fragment in the following paragraph by (1) adding a subject, (2) adding a verb, or (3) attaching the fragment to a complete sentence. Change capitalization and punctuation wherever necessary. My friends and I for a hike in the mountains. Put some food, water, and first aid supplies in our packs. Then drove us to the trailhead. Before we had hiked very far. My parents were reminding us to stay nearby. They good hikers themselves. When we arrived at the overlook. Mom spread out a small picnic for us. Review B

37 Possible Answers Revise each fragment in the following paragraph by (1) adding a subject, (2) adding a verb, or (3) attaching the fragment to a complete sentence. Change capitalization and punctuation wherever necessary. My friends and I went for a hike in the mountains. We put some food, water, and first aid supplies in our packs. Then my parents drove us to the trailhead. Before we had hiked very far, my parents were reminding us to stay nearby. They are good hikers themselves. When we arrived at the overlook, Mom spread out a small picnic for us.

38 The End


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