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The 1970’s Political, Social and Cultural Changes Overview.

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1 The 1970’s Political, Social and Cultural Changes Overview

2 The social upheaval and political drama of the 1960s continued throughout the 1970s. In many cases, these protests were part of wider social and political movements taking place in other Western countries. Australian perspectives on immigration, war, sexual morality, the role of women and the environment were undergoing radical change. In 1974, the White Australia Policy was scrapped. Throughout the decade, women won the right to equal pay and maternity leave and Indigenous peoples made progress on land rights. In 1972, Australian troops were withdrawn from Vietnam and in 1975, the nation was rocked by the dismissal of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam.

3 Political Context Many Australians strongly opposed the Vietnam War and the government’s policy on conscription. Many Australians strongly opposed the Vietnam War and the government’s policy on conscription. In 1970, 200000 people gathered in Australian cities to demonstrate against the Vietnam War. In 1970, 200000 people gathered in Australian cities to demonstrate against the Vietnam War. Australian troops were withdrawn in 1972. 50000 troops served and almost 500 were killed. Australian troops were withdrawn in 1972. 50000 troops served and almost 500 were killed. 1972 – Gough Whitlam’s labor govt came to power. 1972 – Gough Whitlam’s labor govt came to power.

4 Whitlam’s radical reforms appealed to many baby boomers after 23 years conservative liberal rule. Whitlam’s radical reforms appealed to many baby boomers after 23 years conservative liberal rule. Whitlam made changes in health, education, immigration, indigenous rights, foreign affairs and industrial relations. Whitlam made changes in health, education, immigration, indigenous rights, foreign affairs and industrial relations. He abolished the White Australia Policy, increased funding for the arts, introduced free university education and lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. He abolished the White Australia Policy, increased funding for the arts, introduced free university education and lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.

5 Gough Whitlam faced opposition as many believed he had mishandled the economy and caused high levels of inflation and unemployment (because of large govt spending). Gough Whitlam faced opposition as many believed he had mishandled the economy and caused high levels of inflation and unemployment (because of large govt spending). He was involved in some damaging scandals including the Overseas loans affair. The government was accused of attempts to fund its plans by illegally borrowing money from the Middle Eastern countries. He was involved in some damaging scandals including the Overseas loans affair. The government was accused of attempts to fund its plans by illegally borrowing money from the Middle Eastern countries. in 1975 Whitlam was dismissed by the Governor General Sir John Kerr. The only time in Australian history where this has occurred. in 1975 Whitlam was dismissed by the Governor General Sir John Kerr. The only time in Australian history where this has occurred. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5_WHQcKa9I http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5_WHQcKa9I http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5_WHQcKa9I

6 Malcolm Fraser became the next PM and served until 1983. He opposed Apartheid in Sth Africa, increased numbers of refugees from Asia, supported Indigenous rights and supported multiculturalism. Malcolm Fraser became the next PM and served until 1983. He opposed Apartheid in Sth Africa, increased numbers of refugees from Asia, supported Indigenous rights and supported multiculturalism.

7 Indigenous Rights 1970’s Indigenous people lived in poor conditions throughout the 1970’s. in 1971, Indigenous people were counted in the census for the first time. The land rights struggle improved during this time. In 1976 the Aboriginal Land rights Act was established. Aboriginal people had a right to claim control of land. Indigenous people lived in poor conditions throughout the 1970’s. in 1971, Indigenous people were counted in the census for the first time. The land rights struggle improved during this time. In 1976 the Aboriginal Land rights Act was established. Aboriginal people had a right to claim control of land.

8 1974 The White Australia Policy was abolished 1974 The White Australia Policy was abolished 1970’s Multiculturalism became the norm. Aust society embraced different cultures, languages, religions and traditions. Replaced assimilation. 1970’s Multiculturalism became the norm. Aust society embraced different cultures, languages, religions and traditions. Replaced assimilation. Multiculturalism challenged what was meant by “Australian”. Some opposition to multiculturalism but most believed it would have a positive affect on Aust life. Food, music and religion from other cultures enriched Aust. Multiculturalism challenged what was meant by “Australian”. Some opposition to multiculturalism but most believed it would have a positive affect on Aust life. Food, music and religion from other cultures enriched Aust. Multiculturalism in the 1970’s

9 Women continued to challenge traditional gender roles. Women continued to challenge traditional gender roles. In early 1970’s, women made up 1/3 of the workforce, but were still paid less than men. The Whitlam govt ruled that women doing the same work should be paid the same as men. In early 1970’s, women made up 1/3 of the workforce, but were still paid less than men. The Whitlam govt ruled that women doing the same work should be paid the same as men. 1979, women won the right to paid maternity leave although few made it to high status jobs. 1979, women won the right to paid maternity leave although few made it to high status jobs.

10 Environmentalism in 1970’s Environmentalism in 1970’s Hippie movement of 60’s flowed into 70’s with increased focus on environmental issues. Hippie movement of 60’s flowed into 70’s with increased focus on environmental issues. 1973-74 world oil crisis. Aust was very dependant on Middle East oil. Oil very cheap and Australians needed cheap oil to run cars for transport out to ever expanding suburbs. 1973 Arab countries stopped exporting to some western countries after US supported Israel in war with Syria and Egypt. 1973-74 world oil crisis. Aust was very dependant on Middle East oil. Oil very cheap and Australians needed cheap oil to run cars for transport out to ever expanding suburbs. 1973 Arab countries stopped exporting to some western countries after US supported Israel in war with Syria and Egypt. Price of oil skyrocketed and people looked to reduce energy consumption and began to be concerned about exhausting planet’s natural resources. Price of oil skyrocketed and people looked to reduce energy consumption and began to be concerned about exhausting planet’s natural resources. Public support to stop Lake Pedder (Tas) Hydro Public support to stop Lake Pedder (Tas) Hydro Protesting against Uranium mining and nuclear energy Protesting against Uranium mining and nuclear energy

11 Restrictions placed on business pollution levels. Restrictions placed on business pollution levels. Limiting of logging of old growth forests Limiting of logging of old growth forests Kakadu and Great Barrier Reef proclaimed National Parks and protected from environmental distruction. Kakadu and Great Barrier Reef proclaimed National Parks and protected from environmental distruction.

12 Television Colour TV available in Aust in 1975 Colour TV available in Aust in 1975 In 7/10 homes by 1978. Sporting and music programs were brighter and more exciting to watch. In 7/10 homes by 1978. Sporting and music programs were brighter and more exciting to watch. The most popular music programme of the decade was Countdown. Making its debut in 1974, Countdown provided exposure to many up-and-coming Australian music acts. Using brightly coloured lights and flamboyant costumes, new bands used the technology of colour television to project themselves into the lounge rooms and record collections, of many Australians. The most popular music programme of the decade was Countdown. Making its debut in 1974, Countdown provided exposure to many up-and-coming Australian music acts. Using brightly coloured lights and flamboyant costumes, new bands used the technology of colour television to project themselves into the lounge rooms and record collections, of many Australians. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKFlOkhQuOc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKFlOkhQuOc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKFlOkhQuOc Countdown and Sherbert

13 Increased funding and local content laws meant that Australian made TV shows thrived in the 1970’s. Increased funding and local content laws meant that Australian made TV shows thrived in the 1970’s. 1977 – Cop Shop 1977 – Cop Shop Kingswood Country, Norman Gunston Show Kingswood Country, Norman Gunston Show http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_e4huJqpRM0 Norman Gunston and the Skyhooks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_e4huJqpRM0 Norman Gunston and the Skyhooks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_e4huJqpRM0 Dramas included: Prisoner, Flying Doctors and The Sullivans. Dramas included: Prisoner, Flying Doctors and The Sullivans. Number 96 (1972-1977) Number 96 (1972-1977)

14 Australian Cinema Gov’t support lifted ailing movie industry in 1970’s Gov’t support lifted ailing movie industry in 1970’s Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975) and Breaker Morant (1979) Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975) and Breaker Morant (1979) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MC0DbTTiHIQ Picnic at Hanging Rock http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MC0DbTTiHIQ Picnic at Hanging Rock http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MC0DbTTiHIQ Films enabled Aust characters and stories to be played out against unique landscape. Australians portrayed as stoic and rugged, the landscape, vast, open and unforgiving Films enabled Aust characters and stories to be played out against unique landscape. Australians portrayed as stoic and rugged, the landscape, vast, open and unforgiving

15 Australian Radio FM radio introduced in mid 1970’s. Higher quality than AM. New range of commercial stations became popular. FM radio introduced in mid 1970’s. Higher quality than AM. New range of commercial stations became popular. Multicultural radio stations Multicultural radio stations 1975, 24hr youth rock station 2JJ. Different styles, Australian content, youth oriented. 1975, 24hr youth rock station 2JJ. Different styles, Australian content, youth oriented. 1980 2JJ moved to FM (later became Triple J) 1980 2JJ moved to FM (later became Triple J) 1973 Australian content music 10% of playlist 1973 Australian content music 10% of playlist 1976 it became 20% compulsory Aust music. 1976 it became 20% compulsory Aust music. This and TV show countdown led to revival in Aust music industry. This and TV show countdown led to revival in Aust music industry.

16 Music In early 1970’s Australian acts rarely made it internationally, but concentrated on domestic market. In early 1970’s Australian acts rarely made it internationally, but concentrated on domestic market. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8P8lXN0-jrg Skyhooks “Living in the Seventies” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8P8lXN0-jrg Skyhooks “Living in the Seventies” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8P8lXN0-jrg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qRUUWjCWTOQ Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs live at Sunbury http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qRUUWjCWTOQ Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs live at Sunbury http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qRUUWjCWTOQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGKcaHsJgQI ACDC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGKcaHsJgQI ACDC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGKcaHsJgQI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IHWeuQyFouo Disco Bee Gees Stayin Alive http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IHWeuQyFouo Disco Bee Gees Stayin Alive http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IHWeuQyFouo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iZTX1po5ec0 Pub Rock Midnight Oil http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iZTX1po5ec0 Pub Rock Midnight Oil http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iZTX1po5ec0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dKHsSG2Ra0c John Paul Young http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dKHsSG2Ra0c John Paul Young http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dKHsSG2Ra0c http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmExAiCcaPk Helen Reddy 1975 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmExAiCcaPk Helen Reddy 1975 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmExAiCcaPk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQSxKzycCR0 Little River Band 1979 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQSxKzycCR0 Little River Band 1979 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQSxKzycCR0

17 By the end of the seventies, several Australian acts had broken into the international market. They achieved international success with hit songs and tours to Europe and America. By the end of the seventies, several Australian acts had broken into the international market. They achieved international success with hit songs and tours to Europe and America. Australian popular music gravitated towards Pub Rock. Other forms included Glam Rock (Skyhooks). In the late 70’s saw the emergence of disco, punk and new wave. Australian popular music gravitated towards Pub Rock. Other forms included Glam Rock (Skyhooks). In the late 70’s saw the emergence of disco, punk and new wave.

18 Other Entertainment Go Karts Go Karts BMX bikes BMX bikes Skateboards Skateboards Ten Pin Bowling Ten Pin Bowling Houses were extended to provide room for leisure activities. Swimming pools became more popular Houses were extended to provide room for leisure activities. Swimming pools became more popular

19 Fashion Characterised by being daring, carefree and diverse. Characterised by being daring, carefree and diverse. Women: Skirts (long to very short), fabrics were bright and boldly patterned, bras and corsets discarded, baggy trousers, men’s jackets, vests, ties and hats Women: Skirts (long to very short), fabrics were bright and boldly patterned, bras and corsets discarded, baggy trousers, men’s jackets, vests, ties and hats Men: Tight shirts, bell bottomed trousers and had long moustaches, wide and colourful ties, large sideburns, big collars, long hair Men: Tight shirts, bell bottomed trousers and had long moustaches, wide and colourful ties, large sideburns, big collars, long hair Platform shoes, flares, tight, shiny hot pants Platform shoes, flares, tight, shiny hot pants Fashion varied and changed frequently Fashion varied and changed frequently Disco fashion included: Lycra and spandex, polyester, velour, sequins, hotpants, bodysuits, open necked (and chested) satin shirts and flared trousers Disco fashion included: Lycra and spandex, polyester, velour, sequins, hotpants, bodysuits, open necked (and chested) satin shirts and flared trousers

20 Sport Aust is a sports mad country. Large participation in sport, interest in spectator sports and watching on TV. Aust leads world in sporting coverage and technology. Aust is a sports mad country. Large participation in sport, interest in spectator sports and watching on TV. Aust leads world in sporting coverage and technology. Aust performs well on world stage. Successful sports people become national icons. Aust performs well on world stage. Successful sports people become national icons. Active, outdoors culture. Expression of mateship and fair go. Active, outdoors culture. Expression of mateship and fair go. Sport has evolved from amateur to professional and highly lucrative money generation. Sport has evolved from amateur to professional and highly lucrative money generation. Sport in Aust has some British and American influences but retains a distinctly Aust culture Sport in Aust has some British and American influences but retains a distinctly Aust culture

21 Sport in the 1970’s Aust Netball team world champs 3 times Aust Netball team world champs 3 times 8 Swimming Gold at Munich Olympics 1972. Shane Gould standout performer. 8 Swimming Gold at Munich Olympics 1972. Shane Gould standout performer. 1974, Aust qualified for world cup finals in W. Germany. New National soccer league est. 1977. 1974, Aust qualified for world cup finals in W. Germany. New National soccer league est. 1977. Early in 70’s Australian men and women dominated Wimbledon Tennis (Court and Newcombe) Early in 70’s Australian men and women dominated Wimbledon Tennis (Court and Newcombe)

22 Sporting decline in late 1970’s Sporting decline in late 1970’s 5 medals overall in 32 nd place in 1976 5 medals overall in 32 nd place in 1976 Reasons for decline include: isolation, off season competition, lack of govt funding, amateur (athletes working), unstructured and unorganised. Reasons for decline include: isolation, off season competition, lack of govt funding, amateur (athletes working), unstructured and unorganised. America and Europe developing professional sporting systems, developing elite sport America and Europe developing professional sporting systems, developing elite sport Life Be in it 1978, more people getting fit and healthy, joining gyms, fun runs, marathons Life Be in it 1978, more people getting fit and healthy, joining gyms, fun runs, marathons World Series Cricket 1977 Kerry Packer World Series Cricket 1977 Kerry Packer Televising sport, increase in sponsorship, professional sportspeople and high salaries. Televising sport, increase in sponsorship, professional sportspeople and high salaries.

23 Transport http://www.veoh.com/collection/stopcat/watch/v681 9828WP3AJaAJ 1970’s Car show http://www.veoh.com/collection/stopcat/watch/v681 9828WP3AJaAJ 1970’s Car show http://www.veoh.com/collection/stopcat/watch/v681 9828WP3AJaAJ http://www.veoh.com/collection/stopcat/watch/v681 9828WP3AJaAJ

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