Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1.What emotions do you think these cartoons are showing? 2.What are the key features of the face that we use to show emotion? 3.Now draw faces for the.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1.What emotions do you think these cartoons are showing? 2.What are the key features of the face that we use to show emotion? 3.Now draw faces for the."— Presentation transcript:

1 1.What emotions do you think these cartoons are showing? 2.What are the key features of the face that we use to show emotion? 3.Now draw faces for the following emotions: amazed confused fearful Emotions

2 Surprised or indifferent? Angry or pleased? Calm or fearful?

3 Cheerful or sad? Happy or sad? Disgusted or delighted?

4 Surprised Sad FearfulAngry DisgustedHappy

5 5/12/2015 Simon Baron Cohen &Therese Joliffe (1997) A new test for Theory of Mind

6 5/12/2015 Baron Cohen et al (1997) The eye task Which word best describes what this person is thinking or feeling CONCERNED or UNCONCERNED

7 Autism An experimental approach, investigating the nature of autism An experimental approach, investigating the nature of autism Autism (from Greek meaning “self”) Autism (from Greek meaning “self”) Identified by Leo Kanner (1943) Identified by Leo Kanner (1943) Children very much in their own little world, show no regard for the existence of others Children very much in their own little world, show no regard for the existence of others “treat people and objects alike” “treat people and objects alike”

8 Characteristics of Autism Impaired ability to communicate verbally Impaired ability to communicate verbally Impaired ability to communicate non-verbally (no pointing) Impaired ability to communicate non-verbally (no pointing) Inability to relate socially to others Inability to relate socially to others Inability to behave flexibly Inability to behave flexibly Obsession with a restricted repertoire of activities (“insistence on sameness”) Obsession with a restricted repertoire of activities (“insistence on sameness”) “Islets of ability” (eg. art/music) “Islets of ability” (eg. art/music) IQ below 70 (80%) – but not consistent (eg. above average in visual/spatial tests, low in language tests) IQ below 70 (80%) – but not consistent (eg. above average in visual/spatial tests, low in language tests)

9 Asperger’s Syndrome Identified by Hans Asperger (1944) in young Austrian boys Identified by Hans Asperger (1944) in young Austrian boys Less severe than Autism Less severe than Autism Problems with social interactions, behaviour, emotions, etc Problems with social interactions, behaviour, emotions, etc Fewer problems with language and cognitions Fewer problems with language and cognitions Grouped with the AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS Grouped with the AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS

10 Explanations/Theories for Autism/Asperger’s Kanner (1943) & Bettelheim (1967): poor parenting (psychoanalytic) Kanner (1943) & Bettelheim (1967): poor parenting (psychoanalytic) Nikolas Tinbergen (1983): lack of instinct to bond/form attachment with other members of family Nikolas Tinbergen (1983): lack of instinct to bond/form attachment with other members of family Lovaas (1979) suggested that the symptoms are dealt with, without going into the causes (behaviourism) Lovaas (1979) suggested that the symptoms are dealt with, without going into the causes (behaviourism) Physiological/genetic – some evidence of brain differences, seems heritable, identical twins concordant for autism, 1/3 also suffer epilepsy Physiological/genetic – some evidence of brain differences, seems heritable, identical twins concordant for autism, 1/3 also suffer epilepsy

11 Second Order Representations Alan Leslie (1984) suggests a cognitive mechanism Alan Leslie (1984) suggests a cognitive mechanism Second order representations – developed in 2nd year of life Second order representations – developed in 2nd year of life “ability to impute mental states to others” “ability to impute mental states to others” Responsible for pretend play Responsible for pretend play

12 Simon Baron-Cohen Professor at Cambridge University Professor at Cambridge University Suggests physiological explanations (hereditary) Suggests physiological explanations (hereditary)  Autism is extreme form of the “male brain”  Autism is extreme form of the “male brain” (It’s 3 times more common in boys) (It’s 3 times more common in boys) Cousin of Sacha Baron-Cohen Cousin of Sacha Baron-Cohen “Ni-i-ice!” “Ni-i-ice!”

13 Baron-Cohen et al's explanation Autistic people do not have a “Theory of Mind” Autistic people do not have a “Theory of Mind” They do not understand that people have their own thoughts about the world They do not understand that people have their own thoughts about the world  serious implications for social interaction  serious implications for social interaction They do not understand people can hold false beliefs They do not understand people can hold false beliefs They do not engage in pretend play They do not engage in pretend play

14 An old test for Theory of Mind The Sally-Anne test was used (Wimmer & Perner, 1983) The Sally-Anne test was used (Wimmer & Perner, 1983)  tests a child's ability to understand what a person believes  tests a child's ability to understand what a person believes easily solved by “normal” 5-year-olds easily solved by “normal” 5-year-olds

15 The “Sally – Anne Test” 1 Children tested individually - seated at desk opposite researcher Children tested individually - seated at desk opposite researcher Two dolls - Sally & Anne Two dolls - Sally & Anne Sally has basket, Anne has box Sally has basket, Anne has box Sally has a basket.Anne has a box.

16 The “Sally – Anne Test” 2 Naming Question: children asked to confirm they know the names of the two dolls (CONTROL) Naming Question: children asked to confirm they know the names of the two dolls (CONTROL) Sally puts marble in basket Sally puts marble in basket Sally has a marble. She puts the marble into her basket.

17 The “Sally – Anne Test” 3 Sally goes for a walk (doll disappears from view) Sally goes for a walk (doll disappears from view) Anne plays a trick - takes marble from Sally's basket and puts it in her (Anne's) box Anne plays a trick - takes marble from Sally's basket and puts it in her (Anne's) box

18 The “Sally – Anne Test” 4 Sally returns Sally returns CRITICAL QUESTION (the “Belief Question”): “Where will Sally look for her marble?” CRITICAL QUESTION (the “Belief Question”): “Where will Sally look for her marble?”

19 The “Sally – Anne Test” - Responses "Where will Sally look for her marble?" "Where will Sally look for her marble?" Correct response: "in Sally's basket" Correct response: "in Sally's basket" (that is where Sally left it - she is unaware of Anne's trickery) (that is where Sally left it - she is unaware of Anne's trickery) Incorrect response: "in Anne's box" Incorrect response: "in Anne's box" (Sally does not know this - child is saying where they believe the marble is) (Sally does not know this - child is saying where they believe the marble is)  demonstrates inability to understand Sally has a false belief  demonstrates inability to understand Sally has a false belief

20 Why a new test? Sally-Anne test identifies autism in CHILDREN Sally-Anne test identifies autism in CHILDREN Adults with Autism can pass it Adults with Autism can pass it (they apply logic and experience, rather than trying to “get into Sally’s head”) (they apply logic and experience, rather than trying to “get into Sally’s head”) CEILING EFFECT  test stops being useful when participants reach a certain level of ability CEILING EFFECT  test stops being useful when participants reach a certain level of ability Need a new test for adults Need a new test for adults

21 The “Strange Stories” test Francesca Happé (1994) created this test for older children Francesca Happé (1994) created this test for older children 24 “vignettes” (very short stories, just a paragraph each) 24 “vignettes” (very short stories, just a paragraph each) 2 questions – one about physical events (what happened?); one about mental events (what did people think, mean or feel?) 2 questions – one about physical events (what happened?); one about mental events (what did people think, mean or feel?) People with Autism/Asperger’s have difficulty with the mental events question People with Autism/Asperger’s have difficulty with the mental events question

22 Example from the “Strange Stories” test Sarah and Tom are going on a picnic. It is Tom's idea, he says it is going to be a lovely sunny day for a picnic. But just as they are unpacking the food, it starts to rain, and soon they are both soaked to the skin. Sarah is cross. She says, "Oh yes, a lovely day for a picnic alright!" Sarah and Tom are going on a picnic. It is Tom's idea, he says it is going to be a lovely sunny day for a picnic. But just as they are unpacking the food, it starts to rain, and soon they are both soaked to the skin. Sarah is cross. She says, "Oh yes, a lovely day for a picnic alright!" PHYSICAL EVENTS: Is it true, what Sarah says? PHYSICAL EVENTS: Is it true, what Sarah says? MENTAL EVENTS: Why does she say this? MENTAL EVENTS: Why does she say this?

23 5/12/2015 The Study Research Question: WHY do adults with autistic spectrum disorders have problems with social relationships? Research Question: WHY do adults with autistic spectrum disorders have problems with social relationships? The hypothesis: The hypothesis: That adults with Autism/Asperger’s Syndrome can’t interpret states of mind from ‘reading eyes’ That adults with Autism/Asperger’s Syndrome can’t interpret states of mind from ‘reading eyes’

24 5/12/2015 Details of the Study Method: Natural experiment (or “quasi- experiment”) Method: Natural experiment (or “quasi- experiment”) 3 groups of participants 3 groups of participants IV = Normal, Autistic, Tourette’s syndrome IV = Normal, Autistic, Tourette’s syndrome DV = performance on eye task (maximum score = 25) DV = performance on eye task (maximum score = 25)

25 Participants There were three groups of participants. There were three groups of participants. All had normal (>85) intelligence on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test. All had normal (>85) intelligence on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test. 16 Adults with High functioning autism/Asperger’s Syndrome 16 Adults with High functioning autism/Asperger’s Syndrome 13 males: 3 females 13 males: 3 females recruited by advert and clinics recruited by advert and clinics 10 adults with Tourette’s Syndrome 10 adults with Tourette’s Syndrome age matched age matched 8 males: 2 females 8 males: 2 females 50 normal adults (from Cambridge) 50 normal adults (from Cambridge) 25 males: 25 females 25 males: 25 females assumed normal intelligence assumed normal intelligence Groups 1 and 2 and both passed 1 st order ToM Tests Groups 1 and 2 and both passed 1 st order ToM Tests

26 Why did Baron-Cohen use participants with Tourette’s Syndrome? Tourettes participants were used as Tourette’s Syndrome and autism are similar and using both would control some of the extraneous variables. Tourettes participants were used as Tourette’s Syndrome and autism are similar and using both would control some of the extraneous variables. Both Tourette’s Syndrome and autism participants: Both Tourette’s Syndrome and autism participants: had normal intelligence had normal intelligence suffered with disorder from childhood suffered with disorder from childhood had disorders that disrupted schooling and peer relations had disorders that disrupted schooling and peer relations had disorders supposed to originate in frontal lobe abnormalities. had disorders supposed to originate in frontal lobe abnormalities. Participants in both clinical groups had passed Theory of Mind tests based on 6-year-old Theory of mind skills. Participants in both clinical groups had passed Theory of Mind tests based on 6-year-old Theory of mind skills.

27 Method and design The Eyes task, Strange Stories task and two control tasks were presented in random order to all subjects. The Eyes task, Strange Stories task and two control tasks were presented in random order to all subjects. Subjects were tested in a quiet room either at home, in clinic or in a laboratory. Subjects were tested in a quiet room either at home, in clinic or in a laboratory. Independent design. Independent design.

28 Independent and dependent variables Independent variables: Independent variables: autism autism Tourette’s Syndrome Tourette’s Syndrome normal normal gender in normal group gender in normal group Dependent variables: Dependent variables: correct identification of emotion correct identification of emotion correct identification of gender correct identification of gender

29 Hypotheses 1. Patients with Tourette’s Syndrome would be unimpaired on this advanced theory of mind test, but the subjects with autism or Asperger’s Syndrome would show a significant impairment on this test. 2. Subjects who had difficulties when completing the Eyes task or Strange Stories task should also have difficulties when completing the other task. 3. Normal females may be superior to normal males in emotion perception.

30 Eyes task Words were generated by the panel and tested. Words were generated by the panel and tested. Each word was presented with a ‘foil’ or opposite. Each word was presented with a ‘foil’ or opposite. e.g. serious vs playful The method of using the eyes only was chosen as no context/planning skills are required. The method of using the eyes only was chosen as no context/planning skills are required.

31 5/12/2015 More on the Eye Task Procedure Forced choice ‘eye task’ questions Forced choice ‘eye task’ questions examples examples TARGET (correct)FOIL (opposite) TARGET (correct)FOIL (opposite) attraction worried attraction worried friendly hostile friendly hostile calm anxious calm anxious The TARGET is the correct answer presented randomised both left and right. The TARGET is the correct answer presented randomised both left and right.

32 5/12/2015 More on how the eye task was selected How was the ‘eye task’ created How was the ‘eye task’ created Magazine photos selected Magazine photos selected 4 judges generated the target words 4 judges generated the target words TARGET FOIL TARGET FOIL calm anxious calm anxious The TARGET is the correct answer. The FOIL is the opposite. The TARGET is the correct answer. The FOIL is the opposite.

33 Strange Stories task This had already been linked to theory of mind (Joliffe 1997). This had already been linked to theory of mind (Joliffe 1997). It was carried out to validate Eyes task. It was carried out to validate Eyes task. It found that Tourette’s Syndrome group made no errors, autism/Asperger’s Syndrome group made a significant number of errors. It found that Tourette’s Syndrome group made no errors, autism/Asperger’s Syndrome group made a significant number of errors. This gives the Eyes task concurrent validity. This gives the Eyes task concurrent validity.

34 Control tasks Basic emotion recognition task Basic emotion recognition task looking at whole faces and judging emotions looking at whole faces and judging emotions looking at whole faces and judging emotions looking at whole faces and judging emotions Gender recognition task Gender recognition task looking at two sets of eyes and identifying gender looking at two sets of eyes and identifying gender looking at two sets of eyes and identifying gender looking at two sets of eyes and identifying gender On the two control tasks, there were no differences between the groups. On the two control tasks, there were no differences between the groups.

35

36

37 5/12/2015 Controls 1 CONTROL in generating targets & foils CONTROL in generating targets & foils (increases eye task VALIDITY) (increases eye task VALIDITY) eye photos shown to panel of 8 adults who did not know there was a ‘right or wrong’ answer there was 100% agreement with TARGET eye photos shown to panel of 8 adults who did not know there was a ‘right or wrong’ answer there was 100% agreement with TARGET

38 5/12/2015 The Procedure The ‘eyes task’ procedure: The ‘eyes task’ procedure: 25 photos of eyes 25 photos of eyes each 15 x 10cm black and white each 15 x 10cm black and white each photo shown for 3 seconds each photo shown for 3 seconds forced choice question forced choice question tested individually in quiet room tested individually in quiet room

39 5/12/2015 Controls 2 CONTROL tasks CONTROL tasks (1) Gender Identification: all participants asked to identify the GENDER of each of the 25 eye photos (1) Gender Identification: all participants asked to identify the GENDER of each of the 25 eye photos (2) Basic emotion task: all participants asked to identify the emotion in full face photos, happy, sad, angry, afraid, surprise, disgust (Paul Ekman’s 6 basic categories of emotion) (2) Basic emotion task: all participants asked to identify the emotion in full face photos, happy, sad, angry, afraid, surprise, disgust (Paul Ekman’s 6 basic categories of emotion) CORRELATION CORRELATION Participants also attempted Happé’s Strange Stories task – check for CONCURRENT VALIDITY Participants also attempted Happé’s Strange Stories task – check for CONCURRENT VALIDITY

40 5/12/2015 Results Findings: Findings: Score are out of 25; mean scores below: Score are out of 25; mean scores below:

41 5/12/2015 Conclusions Were these differences significant (above the level of chance) ? Were these differences significant (above the level of chance) ? At a significance level of p =< Normal and Tourette’s better than Autistic At a significance level of p =< Normal and Tourette’s better than Autistic At a significance level of p =< Normal females better than males At a significance level of p =< Normal females better than males

42 5/12/2015 Conclusions Evidence for subtle ‘mindreading’ deficits in intelligent adults on the Autistic spectrum Evidence for subtle ‘mindreading’ deficits in intelligent adults on the Autistic spectrum The eye task is a ‘pure theory of mind test’ because there is NO context The eye task is a ‘pure theory of mind test’ because there is NO context (but that does mean it lacks ecological validity) (but that does mean it lacks ecological validity)


Download ppt "1.What emotions do you think these cartoons are showing? 2.What are the key features of the face that we use to show emotion? 3.Now draw faces for the."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google