Presentation on theme: "Mr. Sparks American Civil War 1 st Manassas / Bull Run."— Presentation transcript:
Mr. Sparks American Civil War 1 st Manassas / Bull Run
First Bull Run/Manassas July 21, 1861 Virginia The First Battle of Bull Run took place on July 21, 1861. General Irvin McDowell led the Union army toward Richmond, Virginia. General P.G.T. Beauregard’s Confederate troops intercepted them. The battle lasted about five hours. Confederate forces began to retreat due to losses, except General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson who continued to fight until reinforcements arrived. The reenergized Confederates pushed McDowell’s forces out of the area. Union casualties were high, almost three thousand; and the Confederates suffered two thousand casualties.
1 st Manassas / Bull Run First Battle in the Civil War between two armies Both Armies Inexperienced and Unorganized The south sat on land of their choosing 20 Miles West of Washington Spectators foolishly came to watch July 21, 1861
Pressure from Washington and Richmond Politicians put Great pressure on a fast fight Northerners only enlisted for 90 days Both sides had NO CLUE about war (except for those tough soldiers) Edwin Stanton Sec. of War Pres. Lincoln
The people were so sure the battle would be short, that they often packed a picnic lunch to eat on the nearby hilltop. This poster Illustrates such a picnic, as well as, the flags of the North and South.
Statistics of Battle Union: McDowell; 32,000 men –Casualties: 3,000 Irvin McDowell CSA : Beauregard; 28,000 –Casualties: 2,000 Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
First Manassas: Morning of July 21, 1861 On this morning, McDowell,the North, sent his attack columns in a long march north toward Sudley Springs Ford. This route took the North around the South left. To distract the Southerners, McDowell ordered a diversionary attack where the Warrenton Turnpike crossed Bull Run at the Stone Bridge. At 5:30 a.m. the deep-throated roar of a 30-pounder Parrott rifle shattered the morning calm, and signaled the start of battle.
McDowell ’ s new plan depended on speed & surprise. Valuable time was lost as the men stumbled through the darkness along narrow roads. Southern Col. Nathan Evans, soon realized that the attack on his front was only a diversion. Leaving a small force to hold the bridge, Evans rushed the remainder of his command to Matthews Hill in time to check McDowell ’ s lead unit. But Evans ’ force was too small to hold back the South for long.
Soon the Southern brigades under Barnard Bee and Francis Bartow marched to Evans ’ assistance. But even with these reinforcements, the thin gray line (the South) collapsed and the Southerners fled in disorder toward Henry Hill. Attempting to rally his men, Bee used Gen. Thomas J Jackson ’ s newly arrived brigade as an anchor. Odd Facts: Liked to chew on lemons, Very religious (wouldn’t send a letter that would be in the mail on a Sunday, very strict/stern).
Stonewall Jackson General Bee said…“Jackson stands there like a Stonewall, rally behind the Virginians”. Bee was killed almost instantly after this quote…he never knew how powerful his quote would bee [sic]. General Thomas Jackson…did not move his men The name is now Legendary.
The Fight for Rickett ’ s Guns Shells were exploding overhead as Ricketts ’ men dueled Stonewall Jackson ’ s artillery, directly across the field. Sharpshooters ’ bullets thumped into the wooden lumber chests. Suddenly from the far woods came an eerie, blood-chilling cry—the rebel yell. Through dense smoke Ricketts could see Confederate infantry starting across the field.
Up to that moment the Confederates appeared to be losing the battle, and possibly the war. Here is where the battle shifted. At Henry House the battle rushed toward an unexpected turn at Rickett ’ s guns. Captain Ricketts, in his official report, described the fire from Henry House and then the Confederate charge!
First Manassas: Afternoon of July 21, 1861 About noon, the Union stopped their advance to reorganize for a new attack. The lull lasted for about an hour, giving the Confederates enough time to reform their lines. Then the fighting resumed, each side trying to force the other off Henry Hill. Then the battle continued until just after 4 p.m., when fresh Southern units crashed into the Union right flank on Chinn Ridge, causing McDowell ’ s tired & discouraged soldiers to withdraw.
At first the withdrawal was orderly. Protected by the regulars,, the 3 month volunteers retired across Bull Run, where they found the road to Washington jammed with the carriages of congressmen and others who had driven out to Centreville to watch the fight. Panic now seized many of the soldiers and the retreat became a riot. The Confederates though bolstered by the arrival of President Jefferson Davis on the field just as the battle was ending, were too disorganized to follow up their success. Daybreak on July 22 found the defeated Union army back behind the defenses of Washington. Jefferson Davis Pres. of the CSA
Henry House After 1 st. Battle, then March 1862
The Stone House March 1862 The Stone House was the home of the Henry Matthews family during the Civil War. The house served as a hospital following the 1 st. battle of Manassas
Putting It All Together By war ’ s end in April 1865, more than 620,000 soldiers would lose their lives. The civilian population of the nation also was affected by the events at Manassas. Those who lived near the battlefields, like the Henrys, had their livelihood ruined because the battles were fought on their property. Others who lived hundreds of miles away, were devastated by the loss of a cherished family member. No longer would Americans think of the Civil War as an entertaining spectacle, as had the Washingtonians who followed the troops to view this conflict.
Final Outcome Extremely disorganized fighting Soldiers fought with courage Turn into a CSA rout! Huge Victory! Three things are now known: –The South can fight –The war will last –Both Armies need Organization!
George McClellan New Commanding General: Army of the Potomac - he’ll make the army: –Super organized –Super Trained –Super Equipped –Super Large
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard Designed the Confederate Southern Cross after the battle because the Union and Confederate flags looked too similar. Union Flag (34 Stars) Stars & Bars Southern Cross