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IX Conjunctions of Premises & Conclusions Working with more than two premises

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Proving arguments with several premises To show the validity of these arguments, it is necessary to do the proof in several steps A reason must be given for each step taken in a proof like the Theorems of Logic (find those notes!)

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Additional Rules The conjunction of two premises follows from the premises. The conjunction of a premise and the conclusion of a valid argument follows. The conjunction of two conclusions of valid arguments follows from the premises.

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Thought Process When checking the validity of an argument, carefully list each step and give the reason that the step can be taken If an argument cannot be proven to be valid, it should be shown to be invalid. This can be done by showing that (hypothesis) (conclusion) is not a tautology. It is sufficient to show that there is at least one case where (hypothesis) (conclusion) has a truth value of false

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Example: Check the validity of the following argument If it is raining, then the picnic is cancelled. If it is not raining, then the soccer game is not delayed. But the picnic is not cancelled. Therefore the soccer game is not delayed. Let r denote “It is raining.” Let p denote “The picnic is cancelled.” Let s denote “The soccer game is delayed.”

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Write in symbolic form FIRST! P1: r p P2: r s P3: p. C: s If it is raining, then the picnic is cancelled. If it is not raining, then the soccer game is not delayed. But the picnic is not cancelled. Therefore the soccer game is not delayed. Let r denote “It is raining.” Let p denote “The picnic is cancelled.” Let s denote “The soccer game is delayed.”

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Now to prove – i.e write reasons why each step can be taken 1. r p P remise (this is given) 2. r sPremise (given) 3. pPremise (given) 4. (r p) p Conjunction of premises 1 and 3 5. r Rule of Modus Tollens applied to step 4 6. ( r s) r Conjunction of premise 2 and valid argument 5 7. s Rule of Modus Ponens applied to step 6

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Lets try another If an object is less dense than water (l), it will float (f). The water displaced by an object will weigh more than the object (m), or the object will not float. But, the water displaced by the object does not weigh more than the object. Thus, the object is not less dense than water.

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Write it in symbolic form first P1: l f P2: m f P3: m. C: l If an object is less dense than water (l), it will float (f). The water displaced by an object will weigh more than the object (m), or the object will not float. But, the water displaced by the object does not weigh more than the object. Thus, the object is not less dense than water.

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Now to Prove! 1. l f Premise 2. m fPremise 3. mPremise 4. f mCommutative Property applied to step 2 5. f mProperty of Logical Equivalence 6. (f m) m Conjunction of valid argument 5 and premise 3 7. fRule of Modus Tollens 8. ( l f) f Conjunction of premise 1 and valid argument 7 9. lRule of Modus Tollens

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How About an Invalid One If the sun has set (s), then the street lamps are on (l). Either the electrical circuits are working (e), or the street lamps are not on. The electrical circuits are not working. Therefore, the sun has set

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Symbolic form first P1: s l P2: e l P3: e. C: s If the sun has set (s), then the street lamps are on (l). Either the electrical circuits are working (e), or the street lamps are not on. The electrical circuits are not working. Therefore, the sun has set

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A different approach since invalid Must use a truth table to show invalid So how do we do that??? (hypothesis) (conclusion) must be a tautology for a valid argument.

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Make a truth table [(s l) (e l) e] s

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HOMEWORK 6 Rewrite using symbolic form, then check the validity of the argument 1.The space shuttle landed in Florida (f) or it landed in California (o). If the space shuttle landed in California, then the alternate landing schedule was used (a). But, the alternate landing schedule was not used. Therefore, the space shuttle landed in Florida. 1.If February has 29 days (d), then it is a leap year (l). If it is a leap year, then there will be a presidential election (e). But, there is not a presidential election. Therefore, February does not have 29 days.

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