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Why is it important?  The industrial revolution changed human life drastically  Before the industrial revolution, technology pretty much stayed the.

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Presentation on theme: "Why is it important?  The industrial revolution changed human life drastically  Before the industrial revolution, technology pretty much stayed the."— Presentation transcript:



3 Why is it important?  The industrial revolution changed human life drastically  Before the industrial revolution, technology pretty much stayed the same from 2000 years ago until the mid 1700s  More things have been created in the last 250 years than all of time put together

4 What was it?  The Industrial Revolution was an extreme change in the way goods were produced  Goods used to be hand made  Machines: Invented to replace human labor More efficient at producing goods increased production and changed the world forever

5 QUESTION What does it mean when I say “increased production”? Why would having more goods made in a shorter time change the world?

6 Production Changes  New energy sources were created to power the new machines Water, Steam, Electricity, Oil  People began using more metals and minerals for production and power Aluminum, Coal, Copper, Iron

7 Transportation Changes  Transportation improved: Ships ○ first were made of wood, now made of Iron, and later, steel ○ Sails were replaced by steam power Trains were created And later, automobiles


9 Communication Changes  Communication Improves!!! Telegraph Radio Telephone



12 Work Changes  “Factory System” of production invented  Before the factory system, people lived where they worked  Factory machines were too big to keep in a house, so large buildings (factories) were built  People traveled to the factories to work for the day, and then went home at night

13 Living Changes  Urbanization occurred  People moved from farms to the cities so that they could work in the factories  New “classes” formed, now there were: a working class a middle class a wealthy industrial class

14 Percent of people in England living in Cities

15 Capitalists Politicians Factory Owners & Managers Factory Workers City Workers Farmers

16 Economic Changes  Mass production meant large amounts of goods were being produced  More goods, more variety  Capitalism is fully developed

17 Background of the Industrial Revolution  Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment lead to new ideas, and people shared those ideas  People now knew more about the world and science than ever before  This leads to a huge growth in technology

18 Production before Industrial Revolution  Before the industrial revolution, businessmen delivered the “raw materials” to workers homes  People then produced goods from within their homes

19 Factory System  Replaced the Domestic System  Faster  Workers were concentrated in a set location  Production anticipated demand

20 QUESTION What does “Production anticipated Demand” mean? Factory owners knew that they would not sell 5,000 shirts right away, but made what they knew they could eventually sell This allowed them to take time to produce other things after the shirts were done


22 England: Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution  Slow, gradual changes in England started in the 1700s  After 1750, the changes grew

23 Why England ? Capital for investing in the means of production Colonies and Markets for manufactured goods Raw materials for production Merchant marine Geography

24 England’s Resources: Capital (Money)  The revolution made many English merchants wealthy  The merchants now had extra money, or “Capital,” to buy buildings, machines, and raw materials to get factories going  Stable banking system

25 England’s Resources: Colonies  England had more colonies than any other nation  The colonies were a huge source of raw materials

26 QUESTION Can you think of some example resources that England got from its colonies? Cotton – from the Americas Silk – From China

27 England’s Resources: Raw Materials  England had a large amount of Coal to power steam engines and other machines  England also had a lot of Iron  Agriculturally stable

28 England’s Resources: Merchant Marine  England had the world’s largest merchant fleet

29 England’s Resources: Geography  England has excellent harbors and ports  A damp climate helped the cloth industry because thread would not dry out  Abundant water  Island (preservation)

30 “Necessity Is the Mother of Invention” Spinning machineNeed to speed up weavingPower loom created

31 “Necessity Is the Mother of Invention” Power loom Increased demand for raw cotton Invention of the cotton gin

32 “Necessity Is the Mother of Invention” Cotton ginDemands for stronger iron Improvements in iron smelting and the development of steel (Bessemer process)

33 “Necessity Is the Mother of Invention” As more steam- powered machines were built, factories needed more coal to create this steam Mining methods improved to meet the demand for more coal The process of inventing never ends One invention inevitably leads to improvements upon it and to more inventions

34 WAIT!!! Progress leads to more Progress Think about the world’s first computers and compare them to what they have now Think about the worlds first cell phones. Cell phones were originally just made for fast communication in business. Soon after, people saw that the cell phone was more useful than just for business. THINK!!! DO NOT WRITE



37 The Birth and Growth of the Textile Industry Richard Arkwright (English) Water frame, 1769 Water-powered spinning machine that was too large for use in a home – led to the creation of factories James Hargreaves (English) Spinning jenny, 1765 Home-based machine that spun thread 8 times faster than when spun by hand John Kay (English) Flying shuttle, 1733 Hand-operated machine which increased the speed of weaving

38 The Birth and Growth of the Textile Industry Elias Howe (American) Sewing machine, 1846Speed of sewing greatly increased Eli Whitney (American) Cotton gin, 1793 Device separated raw cotton from cotton seeds, increasing the cotton supply while lowering the cost of raw cotton Edward Cartwright (English) Power loom, 1785Water-powered device that automatically and quickly wove thread into cloth Samuel Crompton (English) Spinning mule, 1779 Combined the spinning jenny and the water frame into a single device, increasing the production of fine thread

39 Steam Power  Before steam power, the only water power used was a “water wheel”  But if a river flooded or dried up, the wheel would not be useful

40 Steam Power  1 st steam engine was created in 1704, use to pump water from mines  By 1769, a steam engine that could power machines was created


42 Coal & Iron  From 1770-1800, coal production went from 6 million to 12 million tons

43 Steel  Before the Industrial Revolution, Steel was difficult and expensive to produce  Henry Bessemer developed the Bessemer process, which made the production of steel faster and less expensive

44 Robert Fulton (American) Steamboat (1807) Sped water transportation Thomas Telford and John McAdam (British) Macadamized roads (1810- 1830) Improved roads George Stephenson (English) Locomotive (1825) Fast land transport of people and goods Transportation Gottlieb Daimler (German) Gasoline engine (1885) Led to the invention of the automobile Rudolf Diesel (German) Diesel engine (1892) Cheaper fuel Orville and Wilbur Wright (American) Airplane (1903) Air transport

45 Transportation  Strong, hard roads were invented around 1820  This eliminated gravel and dirt roads


47 Railroads  From 1830 to 1870, England went from having 49 miles of railroad tracks to 15,000 miles  In 1830 – the “rocket” train traveled 40 miles in 1.5 hours



50 Communication Samuel F.B. Morse (American) Telegraph (1844) Rapid communication across continents Alexander Graham Bell (American) Telephone (1876) Human speech heard across continents Cyrus W. Field (American) Atlantic cable (1866) United States and Europe connected by cable Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) Wireless telegraph, an early form of the radio (1895) No wires needed for sending messages Lee de Forest (American) Radio tube (1907) Radio broadcasts could be sent around the world Vladimir Zworykin (American) Television (1925) Simultaneous audio and visual broadcast

51 Printing  By 1870, the Rotary press could print both sides of a page at once  1884 – Linotype Machine – could create a line of type instead of each letter by itself  Newspapers became much cheaper to produce

52 Child Labor  Many children were also hired to work in factories and mines  Their “little hands” were necessary to get into some of the parts of machines  In the mines, they would be used to haul out coal in small tunnels


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