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Lisbon, July 13th, 2005 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Portugal 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Lisbon, July 13th, 2005 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Portugal 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lisbon, July 13th, 2005 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Portugal 2004

2 GEM 2004 Portugal Agenda GEM 2004 Portugal 1.Introduction to Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2.GEM Methodology 3.Key Results and Issues 4.Entrepreneurship Dynamics: 2001 to 2004

3 GEM 2004 Portugal Background 1. Introduction to GEM -Initiated by Babson College (US) and London Business School (UK) -GEM is unique -No other benchmark exists that can be used for reliable international comparisons -Number of countries has grown from 10 in 1997 to 34 in GEM Portugal performed in 2001 and Analysis of entrepreneurship dynamics in Portugal

4 GEM 2004 Portugal Portugal Team 1. Introduction to GEM -Funded by The Operational Programme of Employment, Training and Social Development (POEFDS) -Project provided by Nova Forum and Sociedade Portuguesa de Inovação (SPI) GEM Portugal also provided by Nova Forum and SPI

5 GEM 2004 Portugal Objective of Study 1. Introduction to GEM ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN PORTUGAL Number of entrepreneurs Characteristics of entrepreneurs Key drivers of entrepreneurship

6 GEM 2004 Portugal Main Data Sources 2. GEM Methodology -Adult population survey, randomly sampling 1,000 adults -Interviews performed with standard questionnaire used in all GEM countries -Implemented by the independent research firm METRIS -Data for all GEM countries centralized by London Business School -Structured interviews and expert survey with 36 national entrepreneurship specialists

7 GEM 2004 Portugal Definition of Entrepreneurship 2. GEM Methodology -“Any attempt at new business or new venture creation, such as self-employment, a new business organization, or the expansion of an existing business, by an individual, teams of individuals, or established businesses” Nascent Entrepreneurs Baby-Business Entrepreneurs Adults who have taken some action to create a new businesses of under 3 months old Adults that are owner/managers of firms who have paid wages for 3 – 42 months

8 GEM 2004 Portugal Number of Entrepreneurs in Portugal 3. Key Results and Issues -Portugal has a low rate of entrepreneurial activity -Only 4 entrepreneurs for every 100 adults -Reduction from 7 entrepreneurs for every 100 adults in Ranked 28th of the 34 countries in GEM Ranked 13th of the 16 EU countries in GEM 2004 EU Countries in GEM 2004 Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

9 GEM 2004 Portugal 3. Key Results and Issues Number of Entrepreneurs in Global GEM

10 GEM 2004 Portugal 3. Key Results and Issues Number of Entrepreneurs in EU Countries

11 GEM 2004 Portugal Characteristics of Portuguese Entrepreneurs 3. Key Results and Issues -More nascent entrepreneurs than baby-business entrepreneurs -Near gender equality between entrepreneurs -Most entrepreneurs focus on the consumer oriented sector -Entrepreneurs more often motivated by the desire to take advantage of a business opportunity -Rather than acting out of necessity due to the absence of other work opportunities

12 GEM 2004 Portugal 3. Key Results and Issues Key Drivers of Entrepreneurship in Portugal KEY DRIVERS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP Financial Support Government Policies and Programmes Education and Training Internal Market Openness Commercial, Professional and Physical Infrastructure Cultural and Social Norms R&D Transfer Key drivers discussed with the 36 national entrepreneurship specialists

13 GEM 2004 Portugal Key Drivers of Entrepreneurship in Portugal (2) 3. Key Results and Issues (i) Financial Support -Insufficient overall financial support for entrepreneurship -Government financial support more adequate -But could be applied more effectively (ii) Government Policies and Programmes -High level of government awareness -But time-consuming bureaucracy and inefficient interactions between agencies and entrepreneurs

14 GEM 2004 Portugal Key Drivers of Entrepreneurship in Portugal (3) 3. Key Results and Issues (iii) Education and Training -Education system does not foster the needs of entrepreneurship -Does not prepare students to take advantage of new business opportunities -Does not promote creative or innovative thinking -Recent increase in university level courses which include entrepreneurial studies

15 GEM 2004 Portugal Key Drivers of Entrepreneurship in Portugal (4) 3. Key Results and Issues (iv) R&D Transfer -Good R&D being performed -But weak links between R&D organizations and those wanting to commercially implement the developments (v) Internal Market Openness -Portuguese market is open to new and growing firms -But costs in entering new markets may be beyond the capabilities of new and growing firms

16 GEM 2004 Portugal Key Drivers of Entrepreneurship in Portugal (5) 3. Key Results and Issues (vi) Commercial, Professional and Physical Infrastructure -Excellent science parks and business incubators -Increasing entrepreneurship and the likelihood of new firms succeeding -Facilities should be spread evenly over the country -Good commercial and professional infrastructure -But cost of access can be beyond new firms

17 GEM 2004 Portugal Key Drivers of Entrepreneurship in Portugal (6) 3. Key Results and Issues (vii) Cultural and Social Norms -Entrepreneurship in Portugal is limited by the national culture -Population is reluctant to take risks -Once entrepreneurs have failed once, they will not be offered another opportunity -In contrast to United States, where failure is seen as a learning experience

18 GEM 2004 Portugal Number and Characteristics of Entrepreneurs 4. Entrepreneurship Dynamics: 2001 to Number of entrepreneurs decreased from 7 per 100 adults to 4 per 100 adults -Mirrors international reduction in number of entrepreneurs -Move from twice as many male than women entrepreneurs in 2001 to near gender equality in More nascent entrepreneurs than baby-business entrepreneurs in both 2001 and Entrepreneurs more often taking advantage of an opportunity rather acting than out of necessity in both 2001 and 2004

19 GEM 2004 Portugal 4. Entrepeneurship Dynamics: 2001 to 2004 Change in Key Drivers % -10% -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Financial Support Government Policies and Programmes Education and Training R&D TransferInternal Market Openness Commercial, Professional and Physical Infrastructure Cultural & Social Norms Change in Average Satisfaction Score ( ) Improvement ( ) Deterioration ( ) Change in Key Drivers E.g. National experts’ average “satisfaction score” for Government Policies and Programmes is 15% higher in 2004 than 2001

20 GEM 2004 Portugal Contact Details GEM 2004 Portugal Sociedade Portuguesa de Inovação Rua Júlio Dinis, no. 242, 208 – Porto Tel: Fax: Rua Marquês de Fronteira Lisboa Tel: Fax: Nova Forum


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