Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Town Planning Building and Town Planning."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Town Planning Building and Town Planning
Introduction: In India out of the total population of 1027 million as on 1 st March, 2001, about 742 million live in rural areasand 285 million in urban areas. The net addition of population in rural areas during 1991-2001 has been to the tune of 113 million while in urban areas it is 6 million. The percentage decadal growth of population in rural and urban areas during the decade is 17.9 and 31.2 percent respectively. The percentage of urban population to the total population of the country stands at 27.8. The percentage of urban population to total population in the 1991 Census (including interpolated population of Jammu & Kashmir where Census could not be conducted in 1991) was 25.7 percent. Thus, there has been an increase on 2.1 percentage points in the proportion of urban population in the country during 1991 – 2001
Introduction: Never in the history of man, planning has been so much in the forefront as it is today. The whole world is passing through the planning age. Without planning, nothing succeeds. So, we have – Defense Planning – Regional Planning – Urban Planning – Rural Planning – Fiscal Planning – Family Planning etc…
The main advantages or importance of planning Planning increases the efficiency. It reduces the risks involved. It facilitates proper coordination. It aids in organising all available resources. It gives right direction. It is important to maintain a good control. It helps to achieve objectives. It motivates the personnel. It encourages creativity and innovation. It helps in decision making.
Concept of Planning Planning means Pre-thinking and pre-arranging the things before an event takes place so as to achieve good results in health, convenience, comfort and happiness of all living beings. By careful planning we can eradicate (eliminate)the mistakes of the past and be wiser in the future.
Concept of Town and Town Planning Town or city is a place of urban living. Urban an environment in which natural surroundings have beeen dominated by artificial or man-made surroundings, which man builds for himself – for living, working and recreation. As per the census of India 2001 Urban area is defined as – (a) All statutory places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. – (b) A place satisfying the following three criteria simultaneously: i) a minimum population of 5,000; ii) at least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and iii) a density of population of at least 400 per sq. km. (1,000 per sq. mile).
Concept of Town and Town Planning Towns with population of 1,00,000 and above are called cities A city also means a place in which citizens with rights of citizenship, live a civil life. Town planning is considered as an art of shaping and guiding the physical growth of the town creating buildings and environments to meet the various needs such as Social, cultural, economic and recreational etc. and to provide healthy conditions for both rich and poor to live, to work, and to play or relax, thus bringing about the social and economic well being for the majority of mankind.
Aims and objectives of Town Planning According to Town Planning Acts, the main objectives of town planning may be summarized in three words viz. (As follows) Health, Convenience and Beauty. Health: – To create and promote healthy conditions and environment s for all the people - rich and poor, to live, to work, to play and relax. – To make right use of the land for the right purpose by proper division of land called zoning such as residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, institutional, recreational etc. in order to avoid the encroachment of one zone upon other for smooth and orderly development of the town or city without causing future conflicts.
Aims and objectives of Town Planning Convenience: – Meant in form of various needs of the community such as social, economic, cultural and recreational amenities etc. – Public amenities required for the proper upkeep of the citizens include water supply, sanitation, transportation, electricity, post, telegraph, gas etc. proper sites for industrial, commercial, business to encourage them in trade with cheap power, transport services, drainage etc.
Aims and objectives of Town Planning Beauty: – To preserve the individuality of the town by developing it on its most suited natural conditions. – To preserve the aesthetics in the design of all elements of town or city plan, which include preservation of trees, natural greenery, improved types of domestic buildings and buildings of civic dignity and beauty, architectural control on public as well as semi public buildings, ancient architectural buildings, temples, churches, mosques and buildings of cultural and historical importance.
Principles of Town Planning: There should be no haphazard method in planning process. Housing accommodation to various classes of people should be allowed to develop. If slums are existing, they should be pulled down by making some alternate arrangement of accommodation in transit camps for homeless persons. Civic amenities like shopping centres, dispensaries, schools, nursery etc. should be provided to all the residents.
Principles of Town Planning: Adequate open spaces should be reserved for public recreation centres and also for the future expansion of the town. Public and semi public buildings should be grouped and distributed neatly throughout the town. The system of zoning should be strictly followed. The growth of the town should be controlled by the provision of green belt, which is an open strip of land all round the town or city reserved for special purpose of limiting the growth of the city
Necessity of Town Planning: The industrial revolution of 1760 – 1820 important epoch (era)in the history of growth of towns and cities. No country is free from the galloping multiple crises of our time. Haphazard planning and lack of vision leads to catastrophic situation. Some of the evils which can prowl in absence of town planning.
Necessity of Town Planning: – The suburban sprawl has entirely engulfed (absorbed) every town and city. The life inside the town often seems to close to being snuffed out completely. – Industries may spring up with less regard to social convenience and before roads are built – Houses may be constructed and occupied even before water supply and drainage facilities are provided – Schools may be located in total disregard of the population which uses that school
Necessity of Town Planning: – Roads may be widened without long lasting effect. – Noise pollution, – Traffic congestion. – Without proper zoning the industries may sit in the residential zones causing health hazards. – Increased industrial activities causes growth of slums and squatter settlements. – Insufficient open spaces, recreational areas, parks, playgrounds etc. – Lack of public amenities such as water supply, drainage, sanitation, electricity etc.
Necessity of Town Planning: We have to put tremendous efforts for the proper shaping of towns creating buildings to meet the various needs. Needs like social, cultural, economic and recreational thus bringing welfare of the majority of mankind. The capital criticism of Indian planning of towns is that the planning is not done for a period of long time. To avoid evils of the unplanned town it is extremely necessary to prepare a comprehensive planning taking into account a number of years for an overall development of towns and country as well.
Town planning as a tem work Even as today town plans are prepared exclusively by civil engineers and architects who paid attention to only the design of buildings, streets, squares, terminals etc. and in general to the beauty and grandeur (magnificent) of the town or the city. In reality town planning needs the team of experts from various fields. Civil Engineer: design buildings, roads, bridges, design utility services etc. Architect: aesthetics of the town. Landscape Architect: fixing location of the sites considering the landscape of the country, layout gardens, parks, public places etc.
Town planning as a tem work Sociologist: social and cultural stature of the city dwellers. Also important to prepare civic survey. Geologist: Natural configuration and natural resources Economist: ecology of the town. Administrator: Orderly development of the town. Legal advisor: Suggesting and framing the legal aspect of rules and regulations. Solving disputes related to land and its development.
The great town planners of modern age: The social concept of the town plan or city makes the final stage of its progress. It started in the early days of 20 th century, when eminent sociologists like Sir Patrick Geddes, Sir Ebenezer Howard, Lewis Mumford entered the field of Town Planning for the first time. Other eminent Town Planners who deserve mention are Le Corbusier, Griffith Taylor, Clarence Stein, Henry Wright, Sir Patrick Abercrombie, Charles Correa and many others.
Sir Patrick Geddes (1854 – 1932): Geddes was the founder of the College Des Ecossais, an international teaching establishment located in Montpellier, France. In India, Geddes provided planning consultancy to the rulers of Princely states. He gave his expert advice to improve more than 18 major towns in India.
Sir Patrick Geddes (1854 – 1932): His principles for town planning in Bombay included: ("What town planning means under the Bombay Town Planning Act of 1915") Preservation of human life and energy, rather than superficial beautification. Conformity to an orderly development plan carried out in stages. Purchasing land suitable for building.
Sir Patrick Geddes: Promoting trade and commerce. Preserving historic buildings and buildings of religious significance. Developing a city worthy of civic pride, not an imitation of European cities. Promoting the happiness, health and comfort of all residents, rather than focusing on roads and parks available only to the rich. Control over future growth with adequate provision for future requirements.
Sir Ebenezer Howard: (1850 – 1928) Studied industrial evils in Britain gave the concepts of ‘Garden City’ It soon became the landmark in the history of Town Planning. The idea was published in book entitled “To-morrow” He explained his idea of ‘Garden City’ by an impressive diagram of The Magnets.
Howard's emphasis on the importance of a permanent girdle of open and agricultural land around the town soon became part of British planning doctrine that eventually developed almost into dogma. Its most impressive application was the plan for Greater London in 1944 and--following passage of the New Towns Act of 1946--the creation of a ring of new towns beyond the London Greenbelt. On practical grounds at least as strong a case could be made for an urban configuration based on wedges of open space thrusting inward and confining development to the intervening corridors
Sir Ebenezer Howard: (1850 – 1928) The main features of the Garden Principles are: – The dwellings for all classes of people should be distributed about a large central court in which the public buildings would be located. – The shopping centre to be located on the edge of town. – The employment facilities for all the people to be provided by starting a variety of industries. – The industries to be located on the outskirts of the town. – The city should have a maximum population of thirty to thirty five thousand people in an area of one thousand acres.
Sir Ebenezer Howard: (1850 – 1928) – The city should be surrounded by a permanent belt of agricultural land of three to five thousand acres. – The city should have the advantage of both rural life such as fresh air, gardens, playfields, cottages etc. and amenities of urban life such as schools, theatres, hospitals, recreation centers etc. – To eliminate the private ownership and whole of the land to be brought co-operative basis or held in trust for the community in order to have the control on finance and the profit gained thereby be utilized for uplifting the community itself.
Clarence Stein American architect and planner. Much influenced by the concept of Garden City. Along with Henry wright also an American architect and planner prepared the town plan for a city Radburn in New Jersey in 1928.
Clarence Stein The principles of planning by stein: – No grid-iron road pattern be provided in the road system. It is the greatest enemy of traffic and road users. – Planning not in term of single block, sector etc. but overall planning of the whole neighbourly area or ‘super block’ – The super blocks to be enclosed by main roads which in turn enclose the narrow lanes or alleys. – Expressway or parkway for high speed traffic with limited access from and to neighbourhoods. The footpath for pedestrians should be safe and segregated from other vehicular traffic.
Clarence Stein – Houses to e turned inside out. Usually the roads and back of the houses are not kept clean. For this reason the working areas like store, kitchen batch etc. should face front roads. This is known as Redburn idea. – The community park spreading on whole of the area of the town instead of providing one big park at some distance which may not be used by all. – The park should be well balanced and spread throughout the town. – Cul-de-sac streets. These are loop streets of ‘dead end’ streets. The idea is not to allow through traffic to go to the house.
Sir Patrick Abercrombie Head of Town Planning Department in London University. Planner of many cities like Greater London, Bristol etc. He synthesized the theories of Sir Patrick Geddes and Sir Ebenezer Howard. He is the pioneer planner to advocate regional planning. His principles are: – ‘Civic Survey’ to be carried out before planning i.e. diagnosis before treatment like the ‘Diagnostic Approach’ of Sir Patrick Geddes.
Sir Patrick Abercrombie – Planning not to be done on piece-meal basis. Instead the town shall be considered as a whole unit with respect to the entire region. – Uncontrolled growth of cities should be stopped. – Industries should be located on the outer areas of the town.
Le Corbusier (1887-1965): Another giant in the field of architecture and town planning. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier (French pronunciation: [lə kɔʁbyzje]; October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was an architect, designer, urbanist and writer, famous for being one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930. His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout Europe, India and America. He was a pioneer in studies of modern high design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities.
Le Corbusier (1887-1965): According to him, a city is a living organism. He says, “ Towns are biological phenomena, such as head, hearts, limbs, lungs and arteries. Govt. Buildings like High court, Legislative assembly, secretariat, Raj Bhavan constitute the head. City centre with commercial buildings and shops represent heart. Industries and educational institutions represent limbs. Park, playfields, green belts are the lungs. Roads, footpaths are arteries.
Le Corbusier (1887-1965): His planning principles: – Core of the city should be decongested by removing the excess of population and should be inhabited at the outer countryside in satellite towns which are linked to the main city. – Provision of speedy transportation. – Provision of plenty of open spaces in the form of gardens, parks etc. round the tall buildings throughout the length and breadth of the city. – Population control. High density should be spread over the entire area of town.
Le Corbusier (1887-1965): – He suggested a plan for Paris city with buildings 24 No. sky scrapers, 215 m high, 400 m apart with about 1500 to 2000 persons in each. – These high rise buildings are lined underground with one another by central area such as shopping centres, civic centres etc. – Plenty of open area with parks, gardens and recreational centres is to be provided all round these high rise buildings.
Forms of Planning: According to Planning Authority, the planning is divided into the following categories. – Local Planning – Country Planning – Regional Planning – National Planning – International Planning
Forms of Planning: Local Planning: – Largely influenced by the economic conditions for the development of the town. – Keeping in view of these, the development plan is prepared. – The population is spread over the town uniformly keeping the density of population as low as possible. – Zones are formed and traffic regulations are maintained.
Forms of Planning: Country Planning: – The country is allowed to develop in an orderly manner and on pre-determined lines. – There should be no haphazard methods in planning. – The town should be linked with the surrounding villages by suitable transport facilities. – Scope should be given to village industries in poultry farms, dairies, weaving industries maintaining a proper balance with the agriculture in the development scheme.
Forms of Planning: Regional Planning: – Planning of a much larger unit than a town called ‘region’. – The planning is done more or less on the same principles of town planning. – Region includes the territory lying within easy reach such as 15 to 50 km and containing number of villages and townships.
Forms of Planning: – The regional planning helps to develop the region in co- ordinate manner. – It deals with planning of regional highways, regional transport, regional water supply, drainage etc. – It also takes into account the overall development of towns, villages in the region and provides sites for new towns for rehabilitation for the displaced persons from the main city.
Forms of Planning: National Planning: – The planning process is done on a national level. – It considered the resources, potentialities in different fields of the nation as a whole. – It helps to utilize the national resources in the best possible way for the development of the nation. – Works of national importance such as railways, Irrigation, Heavy Industries, Hydro-electric works comes under National Planning. – Our various Five Years Plans are the example of National Planning.
Forms of Planning: International Planning:- – International Planning came into existence with the establishment of United Nations Organization or UNO. – It aims at promoting co-operation, goodwill among different nations of the world. – UNO has appointed various agencies to conduct the surveys in different fields of human life, like health, housing, food, education etc. and to provide suitable solutions to these problems at international level.