Presentation on theme: "The French and Indian War"— Presentation transcript:
1The French and Indian War Chapter 9 Section 2North Carolina in the American Experience
2Essential QuestionHow did war and England’s new colonial policy push North Carolinians toward revolution?
3Chapter 9 Section 2 The French and Indian War Date: ________Tb 162-Chapter 9 Section 2 The French and Indian WarObjectives:Show how the French and Indian War beganDescribe the Albany Plan of UnionTrace Events leading to General Braddock’s defeat in 1775.Analyze conflicts with Native American groups in North Carolina.Trace crucial events in the war between and 1763.
4Setting the stage. October 31, 1753 George Washington is sent by Gov. Dimwiddie to deliver a letter to the French ordering them to depart from the Ohio River valley.Took 2 months to reach the French Fort. (in present day Pennsylvania)French claimed the Ohio River valley belonged to the French.The question became: Lose or FightOfficials in England once waited 3 years to hear from a governor of North Carolina.
5The French and Indian War May 1754Washington ordered back to wilderness to build a fortFrench has built Fort DuquesneWhat did Washington do?George Washington builds Fort NecessityLaunched an attack on Fort Duquesne15 minutes later, French are defeatedThen the FrenchJuly 3 – French surround Fort NecessityWashington goes back with a letter stating, “Stay out of French territory.French and Indian War beginsBurrington did not get his orders for a year.
6Who fought British French Native Americans 1756 – War is officially declared and ranges from North America to Europe to India.French and Indian War is now the Seven Years’ War.Thank you George Washington.
7The Albany Plan of Union 1754Britain summoned representatives from the colonies to meet with the Iroquois leaders to talk defense.JuneNH, MA, CT, RI, PA, MD, and NY met with the 150 reps from the Six Nations of the Iroquois in Albany, NYConcernsIroquoisBritish weaknessLack of fortificationFinally agreed after receiving giftsBen FranklinProposed the Albany Plan of Union
8Albany Plan of Union cont’d Called for each colony to send delegates to a Grand Council.Council would take over responsibility of the western affairs of all colonies to include trade, NA relations, and defense.Endorsed by Albany CongressColonies were unwilling to give up any power to a central government.British worried it would make colonies too independent.
9What happens next?NC sends 450 troops to VA led by Col James Innes to meet G. Washington.Built Fort CumberlandInnes waits for Gen. Braddock to lead an attack on Ft. Duquesne. He never arrives.
10Braddock meets an untimely death. 1755 – Braddock with British soldiers, and Washington with the VA militia set out to retake Ft. Duquesne.General Dobbs led 84 men from NC.Braddock warned he was an easy target.Red CoatTight FormationDrum and fifeJuly 9, 250 French and 600 NA allies attack as British headed toward Ft. Cumberland.2,000 – 900 dead or wounded =?Braddock dies and the British “broke and ran as sheep pursued by dogs.”
11Cause and Effect why NC suffered from Indian raids. Cause – Braddock defeatEffect/Cause –French and Native American allies are free to raid.Iroquois roam NC back country destroying crops and livestock, burning homes, and killing settlers.Effect1755 – Fort Dobbs constructed near Yadkin River to protect Cherokee from raids by “French” NA.
12Why did the Cherokee turn on the Americans? Cause:1759 – Cherokee allies lost supplies during an expedition to raid the Shawnee of Ohio. Virginians didn’t share.Effect/causeHungry Cherokee raided farms of settlersEffectSettlers kill 20+ Cherokee, scalped and mutilated the bodies1760 – War breaks out btwn Cherokee and British1761 – Cherokees forced into the mtns.
13How did the war end?1758 – Major Hugh Waddell led ~ 300 NC troops to attack Ft. Duquesne.Disguised as NA, Waddell and John Rogers gain info that allowed them to drive the French out.Ft. Duquesne becomes Ft. Pitt after the British prime minister, eventually becomes Pittsburg, PA.1759 – Gen James Wolfe captured Quebec.British gets Montreal and all of Canada.
14Treaty of Paris 1763Wolfe’s victory ends the war between Britain and France in North America.1763 – War is officially ended when Britain and France sign the Treaty of Paris.Nov 1763 – Treaty of “Perfect and Perpetual Peace and Friendship” signed btwn British, Cherokee, and Catawba.France forced to give up all land east of the Mississippi and all of Canada.Colonists now see new land for the taking.
16Summarizing a) Which nation had control of the Ohio River valley in 1753? b) Which nation wanted to gain control of it?In 1753, the French had control of the Ohio River valley but the British sent George Washington to tell the French to leave. The French refused.
17Finding main ideas. Describe George Washington’s first encounter with the French in 1754 at Fort Necessity.Washington’s first encounter with the French at Fort Necessity ended in defeat when the French surrounded the fort on July 3, After a day of intense fighting, Washington surrendered.
18Evaluating: (a) What plan did Franklin propose at the Congress? Describe the Albany Congress.The Albany Congress was a colonial assembly that endorsed Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union.(a) What plan did Franklin propose at the Congress?Franklin proposed a union among the colonies. His plan proposed a Grand Council made up of representatives from the colonies and a president general appointed by King George II.(b) How did the colonists respond to the plan?Only Massachusetts seriously debated this plan.
19Forming and supporting opinions The Treaty of Paris brought an end to the French and Indian War. Do you think the British could have won this war without colonial support? Why or why not?Answers will vary.ConsiderBritish arroganceTerrainStyle of fightingExperience