The French and Indian War Chapter 9 Section 2 North Carolina in the American Experience
Essential Question How did war and England’s new colonial policy push North Carolinians toward revolution?
Chapter 9 Section 2 The French and Indian War Objectives: 1.Show how the French and Indian War began 2.Describe the Albany Plan of Union 3.Trace Events leading to General Braddock’s defeat in 1775. 4.Analyze conflicts with Native American groups in North Carolina. 5.Trace crucial events in the war between 1758 and 1763. Date: ________ Tb 162-
Setting the stage. October 31, 1753 George Washington is sent by Gov. Dimwiddie to deliver a letter to the French ordering them to depart from the Ohio River valley. Took 2 months to reach the French Fort. (in present day Pennsylvania) French claimed the Ohio River valley belonged to the French. ▫The question became: Lose or Fight
The French and Indian War May 1754 Washington ordered back to wilderness to build a fort French has built Fort Duquesne What did Washington do? George Washington builds Fort Necessity Launched an attack on Fort Duquesne 15 minutes later, French are defeated Then the French July 3 – French surround Fort Necessity Washington goes back with a letter stating, “Stay out of French territory. French and Indian War begins
Who fought British French Native Americans 1756 – War is officially declared and ranges from North America to Europe to India. French and Indian War is now the Seven Years’ War. ▫Thank you George Washington.
The Albany Plan of Union www.synthstuff. com/mt/archiv es/ben_frankli n.jpg Britain summoned representatives from the colonies to meet with the Iroquois leaders to talk defense. 1754 NH, MA, CT, RI, PA, MD, and NY met with the 150 reps from the Six Nations of the Iroquois in Albany, NY June British weakness Lack of fortification Finally agreed after receiving gifts Iroquois Concerns Proposed the Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin
Albany Plan of Union cont’d Called for each colony to send delegates to a Grand Council. Council would take over responsibility of the western affairs of all colonies to include trade, NA relations, and defense. Endorsed by Albany Congress ▫Colonies were unwilling to give up any power to a central government. ▫British worried it would make colonies too independent.
What happens next? NC sends 450 troops to VA led by Col James Innes to meet G. Washington. Built Fort Cumberland Innes waits for Gen. Braddock to lead an attack on Ft. Duquesne. He never arrives.
Braddock meets an untimely death. 1755 – Braddock with British soldiers, and Washington with the VA militia set out to retake Ft. Duquesne. General Dobbs led 84 men from NC. Braddock warned he was an easy target. ▫Red Coat ▫Tight Formation ▫Drum and fife July 9, 250 French and 600 NA allies attack as British headed toward Ft. Cumberland. ▫2,000 – 900 dead or wounded =? ▫Braddock dies and the British “broke and ran as sheep pursued by dogs.”
Cause and Effect why NC suffered from Indian raids. Cause – Braddock defeat Effect/Cause – ▫French and Native American allies are free to raid. ▫Iroquois roam NC back country destroying crops and livestock, burning homes, and killing settlers. Effect ▫1755 – Fort Dobbs constructed near Yadkin River to protect Cherokee from raids by “French” NA.
Why did the Cherokee turn on the Americans? Cause: ▫1759 – Cherokee allies lost supplies during an expedition to raid the Shawnee of Ohio. Virginians didn’t share. Effect/cause ▫ Hungry Cherokee raided farms of settlers Effect ▫Settlers kill 20+ Cherokee, scalped and mutilated the bodies ▫1760 – War breaks out btwn Cherokee and British ▫1761 – Cherokees forced into the mtns.
How did the war end? 1758 – Major Hugh Waddell led ~ 300 NC troops to attack Ft. Duquesne. Disguised as NA, Waddell and John Rogers gain info that allowed them to drive the French out. Ft. Duquesne becomes Ft. Pitt after the British prime minister, eventually becomes Pittsburg, PA. 1759 – Gen James Wolfe captured Quebec. British gets Montreal and all of Canada.
Treaty of Paris 1763 Wolfe’s victory ends the war between Britain and France in North America. 1763 – War is officially ended when Britain and France sign the Treaty of Paris. Nov 1763 – Treaty of “Perfect and Perpetual Peace and Friendship” signed btwn British, Cherokee, and Catawba. France forced to give up all land east of the Mississippi and all of Canada. Colonists now see new land for the taking.
Summarizing a) Which nation had control of the Ohio River valley in 1753? b) Which nation wanted to gain control of it? In 1753, the French had control of the Ohio River valley but the British sent George Washington to tell the French to leave. The French refused.
Finding main ideas. Describe George Washington’s first encounter with the French in 1754 at Fort Necessity. Washington’s first encounter with the French at Fort Necessity ended in defeat when the French surrounded the fort on July 3, 1754. After a day of intense fighting, Washington surrendered.
Evaluating: Describe the Albany Congress. ▫The Albany Congress was a colonial assembly that endorsed Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union. (a) What plan did Franklin propose at the Congress? ▫Franklin proposed a union among the colonies. His plan proposed a Grand Council made up of representatives from the colonies and a president general appointed by King George II. (b) How did the colonists respond to the plan? ▫Only Massachusetts seriously debated this plan.
Forming and supporting opinions The Treaty of Paris brought an end to the French and Indian War. Do you think the British could have won this war without colonial support? Why or why not? ▫Answers will vary. Consider British arrogance Terrain Style of fighting Experience