Presentation on theme: "BR #8 Name that Philosopher!"— Presentation transcript:
1BR #8 Name that Philosopher! This guy thought direct democracy was the best form of government.This guy believed that property was a natural right.This guy promoted separation of powers.This guy thought people needed an absolute ruler to create orderThis guy was the most handsome of all philosophers.TRICK QUESTION!!!
2Purposes of Our Government “We the People of the United States, in Order toform a more perfect union,establish justice,insure domestic Tranquility,provide for the common defense,promote the general Welfare, andsecure the Blessings of Libertyto ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
4Classifying Governments Governments can be classified by three different standards:(Step 1) Who can participate in the governing process.(Step 2) Where does the power go?(Step 3) What is the relationship between the legislative and executive powers?
5Who Can Participate? Democracy Step 1: Supreme political authority rests with the people.Direct DemocracyIndirect (Representative) DemocracyA direct democracy exists where the will of the people is translated into law directly by the people themselves.Example: SwitzerlandIn an indirect (representative) democracy a small group of persons, chosen by the people to act as their representatives expresses the popular will.Example: U.S.A, France, U.K., Germany, Brazil
6Democracy: Two Kinds Democracy Direct Democracy (everyone votes for everything)Representative DemocracyPresidential Democracy SystemParliamentary Democracy System
7Who Can Participate? Dictatorship Step 2: A dictatorship exists where those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people.AutocracyOligarchyAutocracy is a government in which a single person holds unlimited political power.Oligarchy is a government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite.
8Types of Autocratic Governments Autocracy – Rule by oneTotalitarian DictatorshipMonarchy (king or queen)Absolute Monarchy (complete and unlimited power)Constitutional Monarchy (shares power with elected parliament and prime minister)Theocracy
9Totalitarian Dictators Benito Mussolini 1922–45Germany under Adolf Hitler 1933–45Raul Castro, Cuba
10Kim Jong Il Short list of accomplishments: Glorious birth “double rainbow”Walking at 3 weeks, talking at 8 weeksWrote 1,500 books in university (2 years)…6 operas (boom!)Designed tallest tower in N. KoreaBest golf score…EVER. 1st time played 11 holes in oneDeclared fashion iconInvented cheeseburger, called it double bread with meat
11Oligarchy Rule by a few The few pick the government Examples: Former Soviet UnionMost Communist countries are oligarchies.Examples: China (communist), South Africa in 20th century
12A unitary government has all powers held by a single, central agency. Where Does the Power Go?Step 3:Unitary GovernmentA unitary government has all powers held by a single, central agency.
13Where Does the Power Go? Federal Government A federal government is one in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments.An authority superior to both the central and local governments makes this division of power on a geographic basis.
14A confederation is an alliance of independent states. Where Does the Power Go?Confederate GovernmentA confederation is an alliance of independent states.
15Relationship Between Legislative and Executive Branches
16Parliamentary and Presidential Examples of Representative Democratic GovernmentsParliamentary democracyPresidential democracyAruba, Australia, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, United KingdomUnited States, Mexico, Brazil
19Direct Democracy People vote of everything Government in which all citizens have equal power. Every decision is voted on by the people. Rule by majority.AdvantagesEvery citizen has equal power in matters of government. Every citizen is involved in the decision making.Since all citizens are involved in decision making, there is a high degree of support and loyalty.DisadvantagesOnly works when a small number of people are involved. Must gather all citizens in one place for discussions and voting.2. Decision making involving all citizens is time-consuming. All citizens give input, debate, etc…
20Indirect (Representative) Democracy People pick government Government in which people elect representatives to make decision for them.AdvantagesPeople still have the power.They elect officials to represent their interests at meetings.The representatives will vote for the people.Practiced whn too many people for a direct democracy.People can vote, protest and lobby.DisadvantagesDecision making is time consuming. Desire of representatives to please majority of constituents may be harmful.Representatives may not always agree with constituents.Lack of involved citizens allow special interest groups to influence or dominate representatives.
21Republic A Government by the public Republic A Government by the public. Led by representatives of the people. Each is individually chosen for a set period of time.AdvantagesSeparation of powers, providing checks and balances.Direct election of the President and legislators to a fixed term of office makes them more accountable to voters.More directly democratic.DisadvantagesDivided government causes more disagreement between the president and legislature. Policy gridlock can result.Divided government can make it difficult to pass policies.
22Autocracy Power and authority of rule from one person Autocracy Power and authority of rule from one person. It is the oldest and most common form of government.AdvantagesIt is fast. When one person makes all the decisions, no one needs to be consulted and time is not taken to gather a vote.Helpful when critical decisions need to be made in a crises or for social control.DisadvantagesThoughts of other people are not considered.People do not have freedom.Over time, autocracy decision making leads to distrust, low morale, and inefficiency.Military is used against people if they try to protest or disagree.
23Oligarchy A small group picks the government. The rule of a few Oligarchy A small group picks the government. The rule of a few. A form of government which consists of rule by an elite group who rule in their own interest. Only members of this small group have a voice in government.The few are generally the people who are richer and more powerful than others: aristocrats or nobles.Government of the “best”.Often by powerful families who raise their children to “inherit” the government position.
24Parliamentary Democracy Led by representatives of the people Parliamentary Democracy Led by representatives of the people. Each is chosen as a member of a political party and remains in power as long as his/her party is in power.AdvantagesQuicker legislative action because the executive branch is chosen from the parliament’s majority party.Prime Minister is accountable to the parliament and can be removed at any time by a vote of no confidence.DisadvantagesClose connection between the executive and legislative branches and absence of a clear separation of power provides less protection against government control.Less protection by rule of the majority.
26Basic Concepts of Democracy (Found in text on page 18)recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of all persons2) respect for the equality of all persons3) faith in majority rule and insistence on minority rights4) acceptance of the necessity of compromise5) insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom
27Recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of all persons Dignity and worth of the individualEach person is a separate and distinct beingSometimes the welfare of a few is sacrificed for the interests of the manyPaying taxes or obeying street signs is serving the many (if you speed through a traffic light you are serving your own interests and needs at the expense of others)
28Equality of all persons “ all men are created equal” ~Thomas JeffersonAll have equality of opportunityEquality of lawNo person should be held back based on his or her race, color, religion or gender.Everyone must be free to develop his or herself as fully as he or she can and that person should be treated as the equal of all others person by the law
29Majority rule, minority rights The majority are right more often than wrongThe majority should always be willing to listen to a minority argument-- what if the majority is wrong?Democracy is a trial and error process and democracy does not say the majority will always arrive at the correct answer -- democracy looks for solutions to the best answer
30Necessity of compromise Find the position most acceptable to the most number or a compromiseSince the individual is first, and equal to all others, and there are many individuals and groups with different opinionsHow can public policy be made except by compromiseCompromising is a process way to achieve majority argument- it is not an end in itself
31Individual FreedomDemocracy thrives on freedom -- but not absolute freedom where everybody does what they want -- that is anarchyIn a democracy each individual is free to do as he or she pleases as long as it does not infringe on the rights of othersMust strike a even balance – authority of the government must be adequate to the needs of society- authority cannot be so great it restricts the individual beyond necessity