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BR #8 Name that Philosopher! 1.This guy thought direct democracy was the best form of government. 2.This guy believed that property was a natural right.

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Presentation on theme: "BR #8 Name that Philosopher! 1.This guy thought direct democracy was the best form of government. 2.This guy believed that property was a natural right."— Presentation transcript:

1 BR #8 Name that Philosopher! 1.This guy thought direct democracy was the best form of government. 2.This guy believed that property was a natural right. 3.This guy promoted separation of powers. 4.This guy thought people needed an absolute ruler to create order 5.This guy was the most handsome of all philosophers.

2 Purposes of Our Government “We the People of the United States, in Order to 1.form a more perfect union, 2.establish justice, 3.insure domestic Tranquility, 4.provide for the common defense, 5.promote the general Welfare, and 6.secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

3 Forms of Government

4 Classifying Governments Governments can be classified by three different standards: (Step 1) Who can participate in the governing process. (Step 2) Where does the power go? (Step 3) What is the relationship between the legislative and executive powers?

5 Who Can Participate? Direct Democracy A direct democracy exists where the will of the people is translated into law directly by the people themselves. A direct democracy exists where the will of the people is translated into law directly by the people themselves. Example: Switzerland Example: Switzerland In an indirect (representative) democracy a small group of persons, chosen by the people to act as their representatives expresses the popular will. In an indirect (representative) democracy a small group of persons, chosen by the people to act as their representatives expresses the popular will. Example: U.S.A, France, U.K., Germany, Brazil Example: U.S.A, France, U.K., Germany, Brazil Democracy Supreme political authority rests with the people. Indirect (Representative) Democracy Step 1:

6 Democracy: Two Kinds Democracy Direct Democracy (everyone votes for everything) Representative Democracy Presidential Democracy System Parliamentary Democracy System

7 Who Can Participate? Dictatorship A dictatorship exists where those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people. Autocracy is a government in which a single person holds unlimited political power. Autocracy is a government in which a single person holds unlimited political power. Oligarchy is a government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self- appointed elite. Oligarchy is a government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self- appointed elite. Autocracy Oligarchy Step 2:

8 Types of Autocratic Governments Autocracy – Rule by one Totalitarian Dictatorship Monarchy (king or queen) Absolute Monarchy (complete and unlimited power) Constitutional Monarchy (shares power with elected parliament and prime minister) Theocracy

9 Benito Mussolini 1922–45 Germany under Adolf Hitler 1933– 45 Totalitarian Dictators Raul Castro, Cuba

10 Kim Jong Il Short list of accomplishments: 1.Glorious birth “double rainbow” 2.Walking at 3 weeks, talking at 8 weeks 3.Wrote 1,500 books in university (2 years)…6 operas (boom!) 4.Designed tallest tower in N. Korea 5.Best golf score…EVER. 1 st time played 11 holes in one 6.Declared fashion icon 7.Invented cheeseburger, called it double bread with meat

11 Oligarchy Rule by a few Oligarchy Rule by a few The few pick the government Examples: Former Soviet Union Examples: Former Soviet Union

12 Where Does the Power Go? Unitary Government A unitary government has all powers held by a single, central agency. Step 3:

13 Where Does the Power Go? Federal Government A federal government is one in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments. An authority superior to both the central and local governments makes this division of power on a geographic basis.

14 Where Does the Power Go? Confederate Government A confederation is an alliance of independent states.

15 Relationship Between Legislative and Executive Branches

16 Parliamentary and Presidential Examples of Representative Democratic Governments Parliamentary democracy Presidential democracy Aruba, Australia, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, United Kingdom United States, Mexico, Brazil

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18 Forms of Government

19 Direct Democracy People vote of everything Government in which all citizens have equal power. Every decision is voted on by the people. Rule by majority. Advantages 1.Every citizen has equal power in matters of government. Every citizen is involved in the decision making. 2.Since all citizens are involved in decision making, there is a high degree of support and loyalty. Disadvantages 1.Only works when a small number of people are involved. Must gather all citizens in one place for discussions and voting. 2. Decision making involving all citizens is time-consuming. All citizens give input, debate, etc…

20 Indirect (Representative) Democracy People pick government Government in which people elect representatives to make decision for them. Advantages 1.People still have the power. 2.They elect officials to represent their interests at meetings. 3.The representatives will vote for the people. 4.Practiced whn too many people for a direct democracy. 5.People can vote, protest and lobby. Disadvantages 1.Decision making is time consuming. Desire of representatives to please majority of constituents may be harmful. 2.Representatives may not always agree with constituents. 3.Lack of involved citizens allow special interest groups to influence or dominate representatives.

21 Republic A Government by the public. Led by representatives of the people. Each is individually chosen for a set period of time. Advantages 1.Separation of powers, providing checks and balances. 2.Direct election of the President and legislators to a fixed term of office makes them more accountable to voters. 3.More directly democratic. Disadvantages 1.Divided government causes more disagreement between the president and legislature. Policy gridlock can result. 2.Divided government can make it difficult to pass policies.

22 Autocracy Power and authority of rule from one person. It is the oldest and most common form of government Autocracy Power and authority of rule from one person. It is the oldest and most common form of government. Advantages 1.It is fast. When one person makes all the decisions, no one needs to be consulted and time is not taken to gather a vote. 2.Helpful when critical decisions need to be made in a crises or for social control. Disadvantages 1.Thoughts of other people are not considered. 2.People do not have freedom. 3.Over time, autocracy decision making leads to distrust, low morale, and inefficiency. 4.Military is used against people if they try to protest or disagree.

23 Oligarchy A small group picks the government. The rule of a few. A form of government which consists of rule by an elite group who rule in their own interest. Only members of this small group have a voice in government. The few are generally the people who are richer and more powerful than others: aristocrats or nobles. Often by powerful families who raise their children to “inherit” the government position. Government of the “best”.

24 Parliamentary Democracy Led by representatives of the people. Each is chosen as a member of a political party and remains in power as long as his/her party is in power. Advantages 1.Quicker legislative action because the executive branch is chosen from the parliament’s majority party. 2.Prime Minister is accountable to the parliament and can be removed at any time by a vote of no confidence. Disadvantages 1.Close connection between the executive and legislative branches and absence of a clear separation of power provides less protection against government control. 2.Less protection by rule of the majority.

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26 Basic Concepts of Democracy (Found in text on page 18) 1)recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of all persons 2) respect for the equality of all persons 3) faith in majority rule and insistence on minority rights 4) acceptance of the necessity of compromise 5) insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom

27 1.Recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of all persons Dignity and worth of the individual Dignity and worth of the individual Each person is a separate and distinct being Each person is a separate and distinct being Sometimes the welfare of a few is sacrificed for the interests of the many Sometimes the welfare of a few is sacrificed for the interests of the many Paying taxes or obeying street signs is serving the many (if you speed through a traffic light you are serving your own interests and needs at the expense of others) Paying taxes or obeying street signs is serving the many (if you speed through a traffic light you are serving your own interests and needs at the expense of others)

28 2.Equality of all persons “ all men are created equal” ~Thomas Jefferson “ all men are created equal” ~Thomas Jefferson All have equality of opportunity All have equality of opportunity Equality of law Equality of law No person should be held back based on his or her race, color, religion or gender. No person should be held back based on his or her race, color, religion or gender. Everyone must be free to develop his or herself as fully as he or she can and that person should be treated as the equal of all others person by the law Everyone must be free to develop his or herself as fully as he or she can and that person should be treated as the equal of all others person by the law

29 3.Majority rule, minority rights The majority are right more often than wrong The majority are right more often than wrong The majority should always be willing to listen to a minority argument-- what if the majority is wrong? The majority should always be willing to listen to a minority argument-- what if the majority is wrong? Democracy is a trial and error process and democracy does not say the majority will always arrive at the correct answer -- democracy looks for solutions to the best answer Democracy is a trial and error process and democracy does not say the majority will always arrive at the correct answer -- democracy looks for solutions to the best answer

30 4.Necessity of compromise Find the position most acceptable to the most number or a compromise Find the position most acceptable to the most number or a compromise Since the individual is first, and equal to all others, and there are many individuals and groups with different opinions Since the individual is first, and equal to all others, and there are many individuals and groups with different opinions How can public policy be made except by compromise How can public policy be made except by compromise Compromising is a process way to achieve majority argument- it is not an end in itself Compromising is a process way to achieve majority argument- it is not an end in itself

31 5.Individual Freedom Democracy thrives on freedom -- but not absolute freedom where everybody does what they want -- that is anarchy Democracy thrives on freedom -- but not absolute freedom where everybody does what they want -- that is anarchy In a democracy each individual is free to do as he or she pleases as long as it does not infringe on the rights of others In a democracy each individual is free to do as he or she pleases as long as it does not infringe on the rights of others Must strike a even balance – authority of the government must be adequate to the needs of society- authority cannot be so great it restricts the individual beyond necessity Must strike a even balance – authority of the government must be adequate to the needs of society- authority cannot be so great it restricts the individual beyond necessity


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