3 Theme: As part of their worldwide rivalry, Great Britain and France engaged in a great struggle for colonial control of North America, culminating in the British victory in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) that drove France from the continent.
4 Theme: Before the Seven Years’ War, Britain and its American colonies had already been facing some tensions, as can be seen in sporadic British efforts to enforce trade laws and colonial reaction to the peace treaty in 1748.During the Seven Years’ War, the relationship between British military regulars and colonial militias added to the tensions.
5 The French defeat in the Seven Years’ War created conditions for a growing conflict between Britain and its American colonies.The lack of a threatening European colonial power in North America gave the American colonists a sense of independence that clashed with new British imperial demands, such as stationing soldiers in the colonies and the Proclamation of 1763.
7 Essential QuestionHow did an American identity develop during this period?
8 How was America different/similar 1775 vs. 1700? How did Americans differ among each other in 1775?In light of these two questions, was there, by 1775, an American character and/or culture?
9 Some DevelopmentsHuge surge in colonial population (2 million inhabitants)Print RevolutionInfluence of Enlightenment and PietismWealthy colonists and influx of European goods lead to new material culture
10 Social TensionsLimitations on available land in New EnglandGroups (such as German, Dutch and Scotts-Irish) attempt to maintain religious and cultural identities while competing for political powerIncreasing interest in western lands leads to conflict with Native Americans
11 Spirit, Ch.5 Docs A1-4How would the authors each respond to the question, “Was there an American character?” What evidence would they use?
12 Crisis of legitimacy. Suspicion è distrust of government Pluralism, constantly complicated by new arrivals. Pluralism as a fact, and then as a way of seeing American è leads to toleranceSocial mobility possible and valuedIn light of the above, American character is not a fixed thing, but rather a culture/society with its constituent conflicting parts/people (values/lifestyles). This all leads to a broader conception of national character.
13 Specific aspects--individualistic, yet community-sense of rights/rights in conflict/insistence on preserving rights/emphasis on rule of law-religion (or not)/multi-faith/practical necessity of tolerance
14 French Settlement 1598 Edict of Nantes 1608 Quebec established Granted limited toleration to Protestants in France and ended religious warsFrance became the most powerful nation in Europe1608 Quebec established-New France comes under the direct control of the king-no representative assemblies or the right to a trial by jury
15 Detroit founded by Antoine Cadillac to prevent English penetration into the Ohio Valley Louisiana explored by Robert de La Salle to prevent Spanish penetration into the Gulf of Mexico regionNew Orleans established as a fort (1718)
16 Map 6.1 France’s American Empire at Its Greatest Extent, 1700Map 6-1 p99
17 Map 6.2 Fur-Trading Posts To serve the needs of European fashion, fur-traders pursued the beaver for more than two centuries over the entire continent of North America.They brought many Indians for the first time into contact with white culture.Map 6-2 p100
18 European Rivalries King William’s War (1689-1697) Queen Anne’s War ( )Colonists fought French coureurs de boisIndians recruited by each sideSpain allied with FranceColonists captured Port Royal in AcadiaTreaty of Utrecht (1713)Britain received Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Hudson Bay
19 King George’s War (1744-1748) (War of Austrian Succession) Spain allied with FranceColonists capture French fortress of LouisbourgIn the treaty of 1748, Louisbourg was given back to the French which upset the New Englanders
20 Map 6.3 Scenes of the French Wars The arrows indicate French-Indian attacks. Schenectady was burned to the ground in the raid of At Deerfield, site of one of the NewEngland frontier’s bloodiest confrontations, invaders killed fifty inhabitants and sent morethan a hundred others fleeing for their lives into the winter wilderness. The Indian attackersalso took over one hundred Deerfield residents captive, including the child Titus King.He later wrote, “Captivity is an awful school for children, when we see how quick they willfall in with the Indian ways. Nothing seems to be more taking [appealing]. In six months’time they forsake father and mother, forget their own land, refuse to speak their owntongue, and seemingly be wholly swallowed up with the Indians.”Map 6-3 p101
21 Map 6.4 North America After Two Wars, 1713 Map 6-4 p102
24 French and Indian War (1754-1763) Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Began as rivalry over Ohio ValleyWashington sent to Ohio territory by governor of VirginiaWashington attacked French troopsSurrendered at Fort NecessityBecame a global war1759 Quebec fell to the BritishFrench Acadians kicked out of Canada. Became Cajuns of Louisiana
25 Map 6.5 The French and Indian War in North America, 1754–1760 Map 6-5 p104
26 Map 6.6 Global Scale of the Seven Years’ War Among the first of the truly “world wars” of the modern era, the Seven Years’ War sucked in several nations who did battlearound the globe.Map 6-6 p105
27 Albany Plan of Union1754 British government summoned an intercolonial congress in Albany, NYSeven colonies sent delegatesPurpose was to keep Iroquois allied with the BritishBenjamin Franklin proposed a plan for colonial home rule that was adopted by the delegates but which never came to fruitionMaryland, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and New Hampshire all sent commissioners to the Congress
28 Famous Cartoon by Benjamin Franklin Delaware and Georgia were omitted.p106
29 Map 6.7A North America Before 1754 Map 6-7a p108
30 Treaty of Paris (1763) France eliminated from North American continent Spain received as compensation trans-Mississippi Louisiana and New OrleansGreat Britain emerged as the dominant power in North America and the leading naval power in the world.
31 Map 6.7B North America After 1763 (after French losses)Map 6-7b p108
32 Consequences Colonial self-esteem raised Colonists received military experienceBritish no longer seen as invincibleTensions developed between British officers and colonists. Colonists were looked upon with contemptBritish officials upset that colonists did not fully support the common causeWar did encourage some colonial unityBritish refused to recognize American militia commissions above the rank of Captain.American shippers maintained trade with Spanish and French West IndiesSome colonists refused to provide troops and money for the war
33 French and Spanish threat to the colonies was eliminated/reduced Indians lost the ability to play off the Europeans against each otherColonists had a new sense of destiny as a growing people with a continent open before themBritain also felt more empowered
34 Proclamation of 1763 1763 Pontiac’s Uprising Ottawa chief Pontiac led several tribes against the British in the Ohio country, killing over 2000 soldiers and settlersProclamation prohibited settlement in the area beyond the AppalachiansColonists defied the proclamation and pushed westwardAttempt to prevent another uprising1765 an estimated 1000 wagons moved through one North Carolinian town on their way west
35 Map 6.8 British Colonies at End of the Seven Years’ War, 1763 This map, showing the colonies thirteen years before the Declaration of Independence, helps to explain whythe British would be unable to conquer their offspring. The colonists were spreading rapidlyinto the backcountry, where the powerful British navy could not flush them out. Duringthe Revolutionary War, the British at one time or another captured the leading colonialcities—Boston, New York, P hiladelphia, and Charleston—but the more remote interiorremained a sanctuary for rebels.Map 6-8 p110