Presentation on theme: "The French and Indian War. Europe and their colonies became breeding grounds for a series of wars. King William’s War (1689-1697) Queen Anne’s War."— Presentation transcript:
The French and Indian War
Europe and their colonies became breeding grounds for a series of wars. King William’s War ( ) Queen Anne’s War ( ) King George’s War ( ) The French and Indian War ( )
The first war in colonial America between France and England where the countries fought for supremacy. Each country wanted to control the fur trade. In Europe, the British fought against French expansion under Louis XIV. The French mostly won the war, but the treaty of Ryswick in 1697 returned territorial holdings back to what they were during the war.
In the colonies, the British fought the French in the North and the Spanish in the South. The war in Europe was over who would succeed to the Spanish throne (someone from either France or Austria). The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 gave the British Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and trading posts along Hudson Bay – but boundaries are not clearly defined. The French keep a few islands in the Saint Lawrence area and off the coast of Nova Scotia.
The French attacked first and destroyed a British stronghold. New Englanders detested the French because of Louisbourg being so close by and it being a French Privateer base. The New Englanders also disliked the French because the French were Catholics. The Colonists and the British take Louisbourg, but they later give it back in return for the part of India that France controlled. The costs of war were high on both sides for the French, British, Colonists, and their Native American allies. In Europe, the war was over who would succeed to the Austrian throne.
The previous wars served to antagonize and cause immense hatred for each other when it comes to the Brits and the French. Unlike the other wars, the French and Indian War is not a sideshow to what is happening in Europe – but it is a significant showdown between France and Great Britain for who has supremacy of North America. This war starts 2 years before it’s European counterpart- the Seven Years’ War
The Ohio River Valley becomes important for France and Britain to control. France wants the Ohio River Valley because they can go from Lake Ontario to the Ohio River to the Mississippi River, so that France can travel easily throughout their North American empire from Canada to Louisiana.
Ohio River Valley
The British had fur traders and land speculators who wanted to make money in the Ohio River Valley. There were also Colonists who wanted more land and new places to settle. The French became worried about British encroaching on what they think is “their” territory.
The British government saw that there was an impending doom of war on the horizon with the French being wary of Britain encroaching. Britain attempted to have the colonies unite together for a common cause. The British also wanted the colonists to have an alliance with the Iroquois because they controlled the part of New York that was between the French and the Ohio River Valley.
7 Colonies sent representatives to the Albany Conference to meet with 150 Iroquois leaders in The Iroquois decided to remain neutral and not side with Britain or France. The colonies decided they needed one supreme commanders of all British troops in the colony that was to be chosen by Britain.
The conference had a few committees, and one of those committees was led by Benjamin Franklin. Franklin thought that the colonies should unite to form a federal government. The Albany Plan of Union was rejected. The significance of the Albany Plan is that is one of the first efforts of colonial leaders trying to band the colonies together for common defense.
New France’s governor Marquis Duquesne responded to British interest in the Ohio River Valley by having a series of forts built from Lake Ontario to the Ohio River. He intended to expel the British from the area and have complete control over the Ohio River Valley.
The British respond by building a few forts, and the government allows for the Ohio Company to set up fur trading bases.
Virginia’s Governor Dinwiddie ordered a fort to be built in western Pennsylvania, but the French take the unfinished fort and build Fort Duquesne instead. Governor Dinwiddie is outraged and calls upon an officer from the Virginia militia who is in his early 20s to help get rid of the French nuisance.
1754, Washington and the troops he raised march on to the Ohio River Valley from Virginia. Washington and his men fight against the French in the Great Meadows area (in Pennsylvania). The French forces are reinforced with men from Fort Duquesne. What does Washington do now?
Washington and his men build a stockade called Fort Necessity to protect themselves from the French onslaught. Fort Necessity only lasted about a month’s time, and Washington had to surrender because his troops were lacking in ammunition and Fort Necessity was ill-placed from a defensive standpoint.
The French are not expelled from the Ohio River Valley and instead continue to control it. Governor Dinwiddie blames the loss on lack of colonial cohesion and aid to expel the French. Great Britain will try several times to expel the French and take Fort Duquesne.
General Edward Braddock becomes the commander in chief of the British forces in America. He arrives in Virginia in 1755 with 1,440 men. He chooses Lieutenant Colonel George Washington to be his aide. He intends to take Fort Duquesne.
Braddock underestimated the French and their Native American allies when he marched on Fort Duquesne. General Braddock and his forces are ambushed, and Braddock is killed in battle. While Braddock had spoken highly of his troops being well-trained and disciplined, the troops are actually inexperienced and losing Braddock threw the troops into chaos.
Washington steps up from his aide position to lead Braddock’s troops. While Washington cannot work miracles, he does save the British from being completely decimated. He and his troops retreat. Significance of this Failure: The British showed signs of weakness, and Native American groups like the Delaware started attacking British settlers who were in Delaware territory.
Prime Minister Pitt was a man on a mission, and he intended to take France for all they were worth. He gambled to use most of Britain’s soldiers, naval fleet, and resources on taking France’s territory in North America and India instead of attacking France and her allies directly in Europe during the Seven Years’ War.
Pitt’s gamble works. He cuts New France off from getting supplies and reinforcement soldiers from France. The ‘neutral’ Iroquois realized that Great Britain would win the war and they persuaded the Delaware Native Americans to stop attacking the settlers. New France became isolated without the help from their Native American allies or France.
Since Braddock had of course died, he needed to be replaced if the British were going to continue winning the French and Indian War. General John Forbes takes over, and he attacks Fort Duquesne. The British finally succeed…sort of. The French burned the fort down and retreated. The British build Fort Pitt on top of the remains of Fort Duquesne – and it is now modern day Pittsburgh.
General James Wolfe and his men sail up the Saint Lawrence River and then march on towards Quebec. French General Louis Joseph Montcalm spies Wolfe’s men and attacks. 1759 General Wolfe captures Quebec, but at the cost of his life. General Montcalm dies as well during the battle. The British victory at Quebec was the turning point of the war.
Spain enters the war in 1761 on France’s behalf. Britain took the opportunity to strike back at the Spanish. Spain was in decline and its colonies were far flung and not well protected. Britain easily took control of Spain’s colonies in Cuba and the Philippines.
The Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the French and Indian War after 9 years. After the war and treaty were signed, ◦ France only controls a few islands in Canada ◦ France gives New France and the part of Louisiana that is East of the Mississippi to the British (except for New Orleans) ◦ Spain gives Britain Florida in exchange for Cuba and Philippines France gives Spain control of New Orleans and all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi in a separate treaty.