Presentation on theme: "The Philosophy of Christianity Scholasticism. Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) Dominican Monk Primary work was Summa Theologica Wanted to make a science."— Presentation transcript:
Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) Dominican Monk Primary work was Summa Theologica Wanted to make a science of faith Christian philosophy: “Reason does not destroy faith but perfects it”
Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) Combined medieval theology and Aristotelian philosophy Aristotle explained what things are Aquinas explained how they got that way God did it
God’s Divine Attributes Omnipotence: God is perceived doctrinally as all- powerful. God created the world ex-nihilo (from nothing) Immutability: God is unchanging. Eternally: God exists at any and all moments of time. Omniscience: God is all-knowing. God knows in a way beyond human understanding. Omni-benevolence: God is all good.
Summa Theologica 631 Questions on Christian Philosophy Existence of God Creation of women Economics/Charity Free will Natural Law Evil
The Problem of Evil If the Cosmic Designer is the theistic, omnipotent and benevolent God, then why is the world so full of evil? Mass destruction/War Disease Creatures torturing and killing other creatures Disco Pain Illness Why would a benevolent God let such things happen? Why would an omnipotent God create a world where such things have to happen?
Does God Exist? At the beginning of Summa Theologica, Thomas Aquinas admitted that the existence of evil is the best argument against the existence of God. So? Either God exists and Evil doesn’t or God doesn’t exist and Evil does
Objections & Responses Objection 1: There is evil so God can’t exist. Objection 2: Nature and Will explain everything. Response 1: Evil exists to produce good. Response 2: Nature needed something to start it. Will needs a direction.
“The existence of God can be proved in five ways” Argument from Motion Efficient Cause Possibility and Necessity Gradation to be Found in Things Governance of Things
Argument from Motion Something set the universe in motion Sounds like Isaac Newton “borrowed” from Aquinas For Christians, that something was God “Prime Mover” Theory
Efficient Cause Aristotle, Aquinas and the causal argument If A causes B, and B causes C, then A causes C But what happens if A does not occur? Neither B nor C will occur either The causal chain must, therefore, have a beginning, and that beginning is God God is A
From Possibility to Necessity In Nature things that are possible are either, to be - they are created, or not to be, they are destroyed If at one time nothing was in existence, it would have been impossible for anything to have begun to exist Big Bang Theory? Every necessary thing is caused by another God caused everything to exist “Creator” Theory
Argument of Perfection Things in the world are in gradations of less or more: good, noble, hot Therefore there must be something that is best, or perfect and that is… Mr. Kelly
Argument of Perfection Things in the world are in gradations of less or more: good, noble, hot Therefore there must be something that is best, or perfect and that is… God
Governance of Things Things that lack being are imperfect Natural/imperfect bodies act for an end, to obtain the best result They achieve their goal not by chance, but by design Who ordered things to their end, directed them, God, in the same way that “the arrow is directed by the archer” “Intelligent Design” Theory