Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 6: THE DUEL FOR NORTH AMERICA (1608-1763)."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 6: THE DUEL FOR NORTH AMERICA (1608-1763)
France Enters into the New World Race Because of internal religious conflicts, France was late to exploring the New World St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572
The Edict of Nantes 1598 Granted limited toleration to French Protestants Religious wars ended and the French were able to expand into the New World King Louis XIV took a great interest in overseas colonies
Quebec Quebec was the first French colony in the New World that was established in 1608 Gave the French control of the St. Lawrence River
Samuel de Champlain “Father of New France Entered into a friendship with the Huron Indian tribes and helped to fight against the Iroquois tribes
Government in New France Under the control of the King which was completely autocratic No elected assemblies and no right to trial by jury like the English colonies Favored Caribbean island colonies over Canadian colonies because of the wanted products: sugar and rum
French Fur Trade French fur trappers called coureurs de bois (“runners of the woods”) explored all over North America for the beaver French presence all across America: Baton Rouge, Terre Haute, Des Moines, and Grand Teton Recruited Indians died from disease and Indian conflicts made fur trapping more difficult Catholic Missionaries like the Jesuits sought to convert the Indians but also played a vital role in exploration
French Explorers Antoine Cadillac – founded Detroit in 1701 Robert de La Salle – floated down the Mississippi River in 1682 to find where it meets the Gulf of Mexico, named the interior basin Louisiana Created forts in Louisiana with the most important being New Orleans in 1718
French Explorers Antoine Cadillac – founder of Detroit Robert de La Salle – floats down Mississippi River and names Louisiana
The War of the League of Augsberg British colonists were expected to fight the French in the New World as part of the British Empire. Treaty of Ryswick ended the war in Europe. The colonists were told to assume “status quo ante, giving up territory they had taken” Britain has a policy of “salutary neglect” in dealing with the colonists which leads to increased spirit of independence King William’s War (1689-1697)
Queen Anne’s War (1701-1713) Another inconclusive war initiated by problems in Europe. There it was known as the War of the Spanish Succession Most of the fighting took [place in the Middle colonies and New England The Treaty of Utrecht ended this war in Europe, with France surrendering the Hudson Bay, Gibraltor. Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia to Britain. Acadians were forced out of Nova Scotia
War of Jenkins’s Ear (1739) Between Spain and Georgia colonists off the coast of southern Georgia Did not actually result in a war but the lack of English support for the colonies angered the colonists and sparked ideas of independence
King George’s War (1744-1748) This was Europe’s War of the Austrian Succession Frederick the Great attempted to seize the Austrian throne. Colonists were again drawn into war though they were not enthusiastic They did capture French Fort of Louisbourg Treaty of Aix la Chapelle in 1748 returned fort to French and angered the colonists – again status quo ante
George Washington and Fort Necessity British colonists were ready to expand into the Ohio Valley leading to increased competition between Britain and France In response to the French Fort Duquesne, the governor of Virginia commissioned George Washington to build the British Fort Necessity, even though he didn’t consider the location a good one. During the French and Indian War, Fort Necessity fell almost immediately to French attack.
George Washington and Fort Necessity George Washington Fort Necessity with the help of George Washington
The Seven Years War breaks out in Europe Representatives from seven of the colonies agreed to meet in New York to discuss mutual defense, the Albany Congress Out of the meeting came the colonists’ first signs of moving toward independence This war was known in the colonies as the French and Indian War Britain’s preoccupation with Europe left the colonies to defend themselves.
Albany Congress Though called to discuss mutual defense, some attending wanted to move for “Home Rule.” Benjamin Franklin proposed “The Albany Plan of Union,” though it was not accepted. Famous cartoon by Benjamin Franklin that promoted colonial unity. Published in Franklin’s newspaper, the Pennsylvania Gazette.
French Indian War/Seven Years War 1754-1763 Initially, Britain forces experienced defeat after defeat due to the poor leadership of General Braddock General Braddock was defeated in 1755 after trying to capture Fort Duquesne, though he had been warned not to try. This defeat led to the collapse of the British government and a new Prime Minister, William Pitt.
William Pitt Ion 1757, Pitt decided to drop the strategy of war along the entire frontier. He decided instead to focus forces on the Quebec- Montreal area and cut off the interior of the French colony French Fort Louisbourg is captured by the British in 1758 under the leadership of General James Wolfe.
The Battle of Quebec (1759) William Pitt next sent James Wolfe to take Quebec Wolfe landed on the Plains of Abraham and attacked Quebec under the control of Marquis de Montcalm Once Quebec fell, Montreal also fell, and French power in Canada ended
French retained a few sugar islands in the West Indies but were forced to give Spain all trans- Mississippi Louisiana and New Orleans Britain got all of Canada from France Spain gave Florida to Britain in return for Cuba Great Britain emerges as the dominant power in North America – colonists assumed they would be able to move across the Appalachians into the Ohio Valley Treaty of Paris of 1763
Difficulties adjusting to the peace after so many years of war After the war, Britain gave no credit to colonists which resulted in increased resentment on the part of the colonists British authorities felt the colonists should help pay for the expenses of the war and for “British protection” Years of salutary neglect of the colonies by Britain made the new enforcement of rules and taxes wildly unpopular
Growing Colonial Discontent The colonies were told they were expected to help pay for the costs of maintaining the British navy around the world Years of salutary neglect has resulted in their realizing they were actually quite self-sufficient Spread of Enlightenment ideas about natural rights caused many to question British authority Enforcement of Navigation Acts and demands for new taxes were widely resisted.
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) Pontiac, an Indian leader in the Ohio Valley, refused to accept the end of the war when the British announced the treaty had been signed. Indian tribe attempt to push British forces and an increasing number of British settlers out of the Ohio Valley British forces put down the rebellion with one of the first uses of intentional germ warfare in the Americas.
Proclamation of 1763 To end the fighting, The British government prohibited colonial settlement past the Appalachian mountains. Colonists felt they had fought for and earned this land and refused to obey.
Territorial Exchanges in the Treaty of Paris of 1763