Presentation on theme: "The French and Indian War Instructions: Read the power point presentation and create the cause and effect chart for page 16 of your journal."— Presentation transcript:
The French and Indian War Instructions: Read the power point presentation and create the cause and effect chart for page 16 of your journal
Competing European Claims In the middle of the 18th century, France and England had competing land ownership for land in North America. The French held trapping and trade routes in the Ohio Valley. (see map) The English colonies were taking over some French territory without permission as the population grew. The English also competed over trade issues with the Native Americans living in the Ohio River Valley.
Who owns what at the time of the French and Indian War?
The Battle of Fort Necessity The French set up forts along to protect their fur trading interests. Some of these forts conflicted with English territory (the land the English owned). Virginia Governor Dinwiddie dispatched a young George Washington in 1753 to deliver a protest to the French. This protest was ignored. The British sent a group of soldiers to construct a fort (a building that could be used to protect British land) on the site of modern Pittsburg. Young George Washington
The Battle of Fort Necessity The British were then attacked by the French who, in turn, constructed a new fort, Fort Duquesne on the location. The next year, Dinwiddie turned to Washington to remove the French from the site. Washington was quickly overwhelmed (defeated) by superior French and Native American numbers. Washington had to retreat to the hastily constructed Fort Necessity, which he had to surrender shortly there after. This incident was a prelude (foreshadowing) to the French and Indian War. A recreation of Ft. Necessity.
The Albany Congress In 1754, war was inevitable. The colonies sent delegates to Albany (New York) to discuss strategy for common defense. They approved a document written by Benjamin Franklin promoting the creation of a government below British authority to unite the colonies. Benjamin Franklin called it the “Albany Plan of Union”. He suggested the colonies be united in order to have good communication and win against the French. The colonies were not ready for political union and it is unlikely that the British government would have supported the plan. "Join or Die" (1754) published by Franklin is considered the first political cartoon of the colonies.
Braddock’s Defeat In July 1755, the British sent a force from Virginia to attack Fort Duquesne. The heavy force was defeated by the smaller French force and their Native American allies. Both the British commander, Braddock, and the French commander Beaujeu, were killed. 23 year old George Washington won accolades for rallying the defeated British and preventing the battle from turning into a rout. The first two years of fighting were characterized by humiliating defeats for the British.
Meanwhile in Europe…… “The Seven Years War” The French and Indian War was essentially the North American part of a larger war happening back in Europe, the Seven Years War. Britain and France had a history of troublesome past, and much land and power was at steak.
Fortunes Reverse In 1757, Sir William Pitt became the British Prime Minister and vowed to lead country to victory. Pitt concentrated on: expelling the French from North America and protecting the colonies Helping colonial economy buying the support of the Native Americans with promises of fixed territorial boundaries.
Fortunes Reverse Finally, the British were able to capture important French forts and using the Navy to cut off their supply lines. The British conquered Quebec in 1759. In 1760, they captured Montreal. In the final years of the war, the British defeated the French Navy and took French colonies in the Caribbean. The French area in North America was surrendered to England, and Spain also shared in taking some French land as well (The Spanish had helped the English with money and materials).= The French threat was removed
The Treaty of Paris The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War. The French transferred its land west of the Mississippi to Spain and ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to the British.
Pontiac's Rebellion Native Americans quickly grew upset with the British. The British didn’t care about the Native Americans. They traded unfairly, and continued to take away Indian land. This unrest culminated in a rebellion by Pontiac, a Native American leader who united various tribes with the goal of expelling the British. The uprising lasted from 1763 to 1766. Massacres and awful fighting occurred on both sides— most notably, British General Jeffrey Amherst gave the Native Americans blankets infested with smallpox.
Chief Pontiac: Address to Ottawa, Huron, and Pottawatomie Indians (May 5, 1763) “It is important … that we exterminate from our lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I do that we can no longer supply our needs, as we have done from our brothers, the French. The English sells us goods twice as dear as the French do, and their goods do not last. … “It is important … that we exterminate from our lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I do that we can no longer supply our needs, as we have done from our brothers, the French. The English sells us goods twice as dear as the French do, and their goods do not last. … When I go to see the English commander and say to him that some of our comrades are dead, instead of bewailing their death, as our French brothers do, he laughs at me and at you. If I ask for anything for our sick, he refuses with the reply that he has no use for us. … When I go to see the English commander and say to him that some of our comrades are dead, instead of bewailing their death, as our French brothers do, he laughs at me and at you. If I ask for anything for our sick, he refuses with the reply that he has no use for us. … Are we not men like them? … What do we fear? It is time.” Are we not men like them? … What do we fear? It is time.”
The Proclamation of 1763 Violent incidents such as Pontiac's Rebellion prompted the English king to stop colonists from taking land promised to the Indians. Settlers were not to establish themselves west of the “Proclamation Line.” The effort was unsuccessful and is viewed by many to be a leading cause of the Revolutionary War.
In your journal, on page 16, complete the following “Cause/Effect” chart: Copy the left side and on the right, do not copy the question, write the answer to the question only! How did the French and Indian War prepare colonists for the American Revolution (for another war)? Hint: What did the colonists learn about what it takes to win? About the cost? About how to fight? About how to win? About hardships? Because colonists experienced war in colonial America… How do you think the King of England would pay for the cost of the war? Was it fair for colonists to help pay? Why or why not? And why do you think the colonists would be angry about helping pay for the war? Because the French and Indian War was costly… How could the French and Indian War cause trouble between England and its colonies? What problems do you think colonists experienced with the English government (or kingdom) during and after the war? Why would this war start to create tension between the colonists and the English government? Because a war had never been fought in the colonies…..