Presentation on theme: "T HE R OAD TO E MANCIPATION, PART 2 Northern War Aims, 1862-1865."— Presentation transcript:
T HE R OAD TO E MANCIPATION, PART 2 Northern War Aims, 1862-1865
July 22 to August 22, 1862 July-August: the first Northern draft technically nineteen separate, state-administered drafts, but centrally directed and designed to fill federal quotas Growing calls for emancipation Horace Greeley, New York Tribune: “The Prayer of Twenty Millions” Continued Confederate victories Tennessee: Confederate armies began to advance northward Louisiana: Navy still stalled at Port Hudson
9. Lincoln to Horace Greeley, August 22, 1862.... As to the policy I "seem to be pursuing" as you say, I have not meant to leave any one in doubt. I would save the Union.... If there be those who would not save the Union, unless they could at the same time save slavery, I do not agree with them. If there be those who would not save the Union unless they could at the same time destroy slavery, I do not agree with them. My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union.... I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free.
August 22 to September 22, 1862 the Second Battle of Bull Run (Aug 28-30) the Battle of Antietam (Sept 17) after Bull Run, Lee moved north looking to liberate Maryland destroy Northern morale on the eve of the elections convince Britain to recognize the Confederacy and intervene in the war at Antietam, the Union army forced him to retreat back into Virginia, but missed a golden opportunity to destroy his army completely September 22: Lincoln took advantage of the victory to publicly issue the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
September 24, 1862, to January 1, 1863 September 24: Lincoln issued another proclamation suspending habeas corpus throughout the entire US Throughout the fall, Grant’s army failed in its attempts to capture the Mississippi River city of Vicksburg constantly harassed by guerrilla raids November elections: Democrats made big gains, nearly erasing Republican majorities in Congress and taking control of several states, including New York Key issues: emancipation, civil liberties (habeas corpus), the draft, expansion of federal power (banking, income and excise taxes, etc.) Battle of Fredericksburg (Dec 11-15): lopsided Confederate victory
10. The Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863 And I further declare and make known that such persons of suitable condition will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service. And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God.....I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-In-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for supressing said rebellion, do,...order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the people thereof, respectively, are this day in rebellion against the United States the following... And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States and parts of States are, and henceforward shall be, free;... And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all case when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.
January 1 to July 4, 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville (early May): Union forces were once again trounced by Lee’s army Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3) Lee again decided to capitalize on his momentum by carrying the war into Union territory this time they made it into southern Pennsylvania before the Union army caught up three-day battle decisive Union victory 47,000 casualties (23,000 Union, 24,000 Confederate) Surrender of Vicksburg (July 4): Grant capped a brilliant overland campaign with a six-week siege, resulting in the surrender of Vicksburg on July 4 These twin victories cemented Union support of emancipation opposition continued, especially after any military reverse but from this point forward a substantial portion of the Northern public accepted and even embraced emancipation
January 1 to July 4, 1863 Black Soldier s despite political resistance, massive recruiting effort especially among freed slaves hugely successful – by 1865, 200,000 soldiers & sailors challenges unequal pay no combat segregated units no black officers resolution pay combat Fort Wagner
July 4 to September 2, 1863 Back in March, Lincoln had signed the Conscription Act the first federal draft in US history loopholes favoring the wealthy made the act even more controversial In July, federal officials began enrolling (registering) draft-age men across the North July 13-16: New York City Draft Riots total breakdown in social order for three days vicious Irish-American attacks on African Americans over 100 black New Yorkers killed this was merely the worst of the draft riots occurring in cities across the North the rise in war support after Gettysburg and Vicksburg made the rioters appear treasonous damaged the credibility of Lincoln’s Democratic opposition this emboldened Radical Republicans to push for a stronger emancipation policy
11. Lincoln to Secretary of the Treasury Salmon Chase, September 2, 1863 Knowing your great anxiety that the emancipation proclamation shall now be applied to certain parts of Virginia and Louisiana which were exempted from it last January, I state briefly what appear to me to be difficulties in the way of such a step. The original proclamation has no constitutional or legal justification, except as a military measure. The exemptions were made because the military necessity did not apply to the exempted localities. Nor does that necessity apply to them now any more than it did then. If I take the step must I not do so, without the argument of military necessity, and so, without any argument, except the one that I think the measure politically expedient, and morally right? Would I not thus give up all footing upon constitution or law? Would I not thus be in the boundless field of absolutism? Could this pass unnoticed, or unresisted? Could it fail to be perceived that without any further stretch, I might do the same in Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri; and even change any law in any state? Would not many of our own friends shrink away appalled? Would it not lose us the elections, and with them, the very cause we seek to advance?
September 2 to November 19, 1863 The Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia (Sept 18-20): major setback for Union forces, who were pushed back into Tennessee and besieged at Chattanooga late October: Grant’s decisive leadership in lifting the Confederates siege of Chattanooga raised Union morale once more Lincoln took the opportunity of the dedication of a national cemetery at the site of the Battle of Gettysburg to restate his commitment to emancipation powerfully incorporated the destruction of slavery into his longstanding vision of the war as a mission to save self-government on earth not just the saving of the Republic but “a new birth of freedom”
12. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863 Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battle field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate – we can not consecrate – we can not hallow – this ground. The brave men living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it will never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us – that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom – and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
November 19, 1863, to April 4, 1864 March 1864: Lincoln gave Grant overall command of all Union forces April 1864: Congress began to debate a constitutional amendment banning slavery in the US With Lincoln strongly supporting the effort behind the scenes In early April, Lincoln wrote a letter to Kentucky newspaper editor Albert Hodges, repeating in writing what he had told Hodges and others in a recent meeting intended to be public – Lincoln knew it would be widely printed
13. Lincoln to Albert G. Hodges, April 4, 1864 I am naturally anti-slavery. If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong. I can not remember when I did not so think, and feel. And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling.... I felt that measures, otherwise unconstitutional, might become lawful, by becoming indispensable to the preservation of the constitution, through the preservation of the nation....I could not feel that, to the best of my ability, I had even tried to preserve the constitution, if, to save slavery, or any minor matter, I should permit the wreck of government, country, and Constitution all together. When, early in the war, Gen. Fremont attempted military emancipation, I forbade it, because I did not then think it an indispensable necessity. When a little later,...Gen. Hunter attempted military emancipation, I again forbade it, because I did not yet think the indispensable necessity had come. When, in March, and May, and July 1862 I made earnest, and successive appeals to the border states to favor compensated emancipation, I believed the indispensable necessity for military emancipation, and arming the blacks would come, unless averted by that measure. They declined the proposition; and I was, in my best judgment, driven to the alternative of either surrendering the Union, and with it, the Constitution, or of laying strong hand upon the colored element. I chose the latter....
April 4, 1864 to January 31, 1865 Union strategy: simultaneous advances on all fronts Grant in the East, Sherman in the West, plus others psychological warfare against Southern civilians destruction (of property, not people) March-September Grant Sherman by late August, Northern morale is at a low September: capture of Atlanta wins election for Lincoln November-April Sherman’s drive to the sea, then north through SC April 9: Appomattox Court House
14. The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution passed by Congress January 31, 1865, ratified December 16, 1865 Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.