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〈君主論〉的關鍵語彙 出處: Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, edited by Quentin Skinner and Russell Price, 1988, Cambridge University Press.

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Presentation on theme: "〈君主論〉的關鍵語彙 出處: Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, edited by Quentin Skinner and Russell Price, 1988, Cambridge University Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 〈君主論〉的關鍵語彙 出處: Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, edited by Quentin Skinner and Russell Price, 1988, Cambridge University Press.

2 Virtù Virtù (勉強譯為『能力』)  Virtú, from the Latin virtus (itself derived from vir, ‘man’), is used by Machiavelli (as well as by earlier and contemporary writers) in a variety of senses. Occasionally, it signifies ‘virtue’ (as opposed to vizio, ‘vice’); instances of this sense occur in Chapters XV and XVI. The plural, le virtú, usually has the sense of ‘good qualities’ or ‘virtues’. (103)

3 Virtù  Much more often, however, virtú has various senses (which are sometimes combined): ‘ability’, ‘skill’, ‘energy’, ‘determination’, ‘strength’, ‘spiritedness’, ‘courage’ or ‘prowess’.

4 Virtù  I have translated it in different ways, according to the context: usually I have preferred to use ‘ability’ (since it is most comprehensive in meaning), but when virtú used in a military context I have sometimes rendered it as ‘prowess’ or ‘courage’. (103)

5 Fortuna Fortuna (勉強譯為『幸運』)  Fortuna is used by Machiavelli (and by Italian Renaissance writers generally) in several more senses than English word ‘fortune’, and it is a difficult term to translate.

6 Fortuna Fortuna (勉強譯為『幸運』)  It is possible to distinguish six senses: a non- human ‘force’; luck; favour or help; condition or conditions; circumstances; success and failure. …… I have preferred to make a tripartite clasificationn, the second and third categories (especially the latter) consisting of ‘sets’ of senses. ( )

7 Fortuna  First, Machiavelli sometimes speaks of fortuna as (or as if it were) a force or agent that intervenes in human affairs; this sense is conspicuous especially in Chapter XXV, and I have rendered it as ‘fortune’.(105)

8 Fortuna  Secondly, fortuna denotes ‘luck’ (which may be ‘good’ or ‘bad’): in other words, events or actions (especially those that are unforeseen) that affect us, either favourably or unfavourably, but which are often beyond our control; when they are inimical, it is frequently difficult to guard against them. (105)

9 Fortuna  ‘Luck’ may either ‘good’ or ‘bad’: indolent rulers who lose power may afterwards be inclined to lament their bad luck, instead of recognizing their own ignavia, their slothful failure to use quiet times for building up their power and strengthening their defences. In such circumstances Machiavelli rejects the appeal to fortuna as providing an ‘explanation’ of their downfall. (106)

10 Fortuna  Third, there are some fairly closely related senses of fortuna, which it seems appropriate to classify together: ‘condition of life, a favourable or unfavourable position in relation to other men, or for attaining power; ‘conditions’ or ‘circumstances’; and ‘success’ or ‘failure’.

11 Occasione Occasione (勉強譯為『機遇』)  Occasione (from the Latin occasio) is a term that is closely connected with both fortuna and virtù. I have usually translated it as ‘opportunity’. It is conspicuous especially in Chapter VI, in which Machiavelli discusses men who became great through their own virtù and by using their own forces. He says that they owed nothing to fortuna except the occasione, that is, conditions or circumstances favourable to their enterprises.

12 Occasione  Favourable conditions are necessary even for men of great ability: for ‘if they had lacked the opportunity (occasione), the strength of their spirit would have been sapped’. But if they had lacked such virtú, ‘the opportunity (occasione) would have been wasted’. Men of outstanding ability (eccellente virtú) are able to recognize opportunities and exploit them. (107)

13 Necessità Necessità (勉強譯為『必然』)  There are no special difficulties involved in translating the noun necessità, the adjective necessario and the past participle necessitato: ‘necessity’ and ‘necessary’ are exact equivalents. It is true that ‘necessitated’ is not felicitous, and I have used such words as ‘obliged’ and ‘forced’; I have also sometimes preferred not to translate necessità by ‘necessity’ and necessario by ‘necessary’, and have used ‘need’ and ‘constraint’, and various verbal forms for the former, and ‘forced’, ‘must’ and ‘essential’ for the latter. ( )

14 Necessità  However, ‘necessity’ is one of the most important ideas in terms of which Machiavelli considers human conduct. And it should be emphasised that, when discussing the pressures that men operate under, he uses several other words. (108)

15 Necessità  There are two kinds of ‘necessity’. The first is ‘absolute’ or ‘categorical’ in character: that is, when men have no choice, when their condition is determined by natural forces (floods, earthquakes, etc.) or by powerful human forces (e.g., being defeated by a much stronger army, being expelled from one’s home or native region).

16 Necessità  Secondly, there is ‘hypothetical’ or ’conditional’ necessity: some actions, polices, etc., are or become ‘necessary’ only if certain conditions and purposes are postulated. Most of the instances of ‘necessity’ mentioned in The Prince are hypothetical in character.

17 Libertà Libertà (勉強譯為『自由』)  libertà, libero: The primary senses of these words are of course ‘freedom’ (or liberty) and ‘free’ (and they are normally used by Machiavelli with reference to communities rather than to individuals).

18 Libertà Libertà (勉強譯為『自由』)  However, they have two rather more specific senses: first, a ‘republic’ (as opposed to a ‘principality’, a ‘kingdom’ or ‘monarchy’); secondly, a state (whether ‘republic’ or ‘principality’) that is not subject to another state, i.e., ‘independent’.(109)

19 Libertà  In short, for Machiavelli, a genuine ‘republic’ is characterised by its ‘free institution’, and by the opportunities it affords to all its citizens to participate in public life. Naturally, this theme is explored more fully in the Discourses (e.g. II, 2) than in The Prince, which is concerned almost exclusively with ‘principalities’. (109)

20 Libertà  Frequently Machiavelli clearly uses libertà and libero to denote either ‘republican freedom’ or ‘independence’. Sometimes they combine both senses. (109)

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