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Mr. Leone - 8th Grade US History

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1 Mr. Leone - 8th Grade US History
The French & Indian War (1756 to 1763) Mr. Leone - 8th Grade US History

2 Learning Targets!!! I Can . . . Identify conflicts created by European claims to Native American lands Explain the events that led up to the French & Indian War Describe how the attitudes of colonial & Native Americans changed after the French & Indian War

3 North America in 1750

4 The French Quebec: Capital of New France
Montreal: French settlement which started as a fur trading post, became the center of the fur trade Why they came: Most French came on a temporary basis as trappers & traders, learned to live with the native-Americans, inter-married Plan to establish a permanent colony of farming families in the St. Lawrence River Valley, grew to 15,000 by 1700

5 The French vs other Europeans
Empire based on TradeSpanish set-out to Rule & Conquer English Transplant Institutions as they push Natives off land French Flag during this period

6 French Fur Trade Ordinary Frenchmen couldn’t own land in New France, only nobles who brought settlersRiches lay in pelts & hides, not gold or farming! Depended on American Indian help Fur Trappers & Traders learned to live like the Indians French Missionaries treated Native-Americans with respect

7 Conflict in the Ohio Valley
1754  Build up to War Conflict in the Ohio Valley George Washington British French Fort Necessity George Washington Fort Duquesne Delaware Shawnee Indians George Washington led a surprise attack against the French The French countered by attacking Ft. Necessity Washington retreated to Virginia Huron Indians sided with the French The French & Indian war had now begun Part of a larger conflict - The Seven Years War

8 1754  Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin
Colonist tried to form their own alliances Reps from the British colonies & the Iroquois nations met in Albany to discuss an alliance Ben Franklin Proposed that the British colonies band together & send representatives to a Grand Council (which could collect taxes, raise arms & make treaties)

9 Results of the Albany Congress
Colonists were not ready for Union Colonial assemblies wanted to keep control of local affairs Colonists: Not enough power for the colonists! England: Too much power for the colonists! Albany Congress Failed Iroquois broke off relations with the British & threatened to trade with France

10 Lasting Importance of Albany
Franklin anticipated many of the problems that the government would face after independenceFinanceDealing with Indian tribesControl of commerceDefenseAlbany contained the seeds of true union These ideas would be adopted 30 years later!

11 French Advantages Controlled access to the interior St. Lawrence RiverMississippi RiverSingle colonial government, can act quickly (colonies had 13 separate gov’ts)Sent ships & professional soldiers rather than depend on military help from their colonistsLoyal Indian AlliesHuronAlgonquin

12 British Strengths & Weaknesses
Population much larger than that of New FranceLocated along the Atlantic coast Easier to defendFighting to save their homes & land BUT . . . British lose Indian allies after they lose at Fort Necessity Indians end up siding with the French or they stay out of the fight!

13 1755  Braddock’s Defeat Gen. Edward Braddock attempts to evict the French from the Ohio Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) Braddock ignored repeated warnings and he & his men were ambushed Braddock was killed less than 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by relatively small French & Indian force Americans were stunned as British forces suffer various defeats over the next two years

14 British-American Colonial Tensions
Colonials British Methods of Fighting: Indian-style guerilla tactics March in formation or bayonet charge Military Organization: Col. militias served under own captains Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials Military Discipline: Didn’t observe military protocols observed Drills & tough discipline Finances: Resistance to rising taxes Colonists should pay for their own defense Demeanor: Casual, non-professionals Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.

15 William Pitt Britain’s Secretary of State1757 begins to transform the British war effortUnder total British controlPours $$$ into the war effortColonists forced to provide supplies, equipment, shelter and manpower

16 Back & Forth Montcalm (Fr.) defeats Monro (B.) at Fort William Henry Montcalm takes Fort Carillon Brits will take it back in 1759 & rename it Ft. Ticonderoga Friction between British authorities and colonists threaten the war effort Pitt relaxes policies:This renewed support & the tide of the war turns in favor of the British!

17 The Tide Turns for England
Pitt focuses on 3 main goals to defeat the French: Take control of…LouisburgQuebecMontrealNative-American allies abandon the French who are outnumbered, confused, exhausted, outgunned, & low on supplies

18 The Tide Turns for England
Louisburg fell to Brits under General Wolfe 1st significant British victory of the war Wolfe takes Fort Duquesne in the Ohio Valley renamed it Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh, PA) Quebec falls to Brits 18,000 English vs. 14,000 French Wolfe & Montcalm both die Montreal falls to Brits End of French in Canada French population remained behind Treaty of Paris formally ends the French & Indian War

19 1763  Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India & all claims to lands east of the Mississippi River Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River (New Orleans) but lost Florida to England England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade & commercial dominance in India

20 North America in 1763

21 Effects of the War on Britain & America?
It increased Britian’s colonial empire in America It greatly enlarged England’s debt England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary! America It united the colonies against a common enemy It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated Both (towards one another) It created bitter feelings that would only intensify

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