Presentation on theme: "Mr. Leone - 8th Grade US History"— Presentation transcript:
1Mr. Leone - 8th Grade US History The French & Indian War(1756 to 1763)Mr. Leone - 8th Grade US History
2Learning Targets!!!I Can . . .Identify conflicts created by European claims to Native American landsExplain the events that led up to the French & Indian WarDescribe how the attitudes of colonial & Native Americans changed after the French & Indian War
4The French Quebec: Capital of New France Montreal: French settlement which started as a fur trading post, became the center of the fur tradeWhy they came:Most French came on a temporary basis as trappers & traders, learned to live with the native-Americans, inter-marriedPlan to establish a permanent colony of farming families in the St. Lawrence River Valley, grew to 15,000 by 1700
5The French vs other Europeans Empire based on TradeSpanishset-out to Rule & ConquerEnglishTransplant Institutions as they push Natives off landFrench Flag during this period
6French Fur TradeOrdinary Frenchmen couldn’t own land in New France, only nobles who brought settlersRiches lay in pelts & hides, not gold or farming!Depended on American Indian helpFur Trappers & Traders learned to live like the IndiansFrench Missionaries treated Native-Americans with respect
7Conflict in the Ohio Valley 1754 Build up to WarConflict in the Ohio ValleyGeorge WashingtonBritishFrenchFort NecessityGeorge WashingtonFort DuquesneDelawareShawnee IndiansGeorge Washington led a surprise attack against the FrenchThe French countered by attacking Ft. NecessityWashington retreated to VirginiaHuron Indians sided with the FrenchThe French & Indian war had now begunPart of a larger conflict - The Seven Years War
81754 Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin Colonist tried to form their own alliancesReps from the British colonies & the Iroquois nations met in Albany to discuss an allianceBen FranklinProposed that the British colonies band together & send representatives to a Grand Council (which could collect taxes, raise arms & make treaties)
9Results of the Albany Congress Colonists were not ready for UnionColonial assemblies wanted to keep control of local affairsColonists:Not enough power for the colonists!England:Too much power for the colonists!Albany Congress FailedIroquois broke off relations with the British & threatened to trade with France
10Lasting Importance of Albany Franklin anticipated many of the problems that the government would face after independenceFinanceDealing with Indian tribesControl of commerceDefenseAlbany contained the seeds of true unionThese ideas would be adopted 30 years later!
11French AdvantagesControlled access to the interior St. Lawrence RiverMississippi RiverSingle colonial government, can act quickly (colonies had 13 separate gov’ts)Sent ships & professional soldiers rather than depend on military help from their colonistsLoyal Indian AlliesHuronAlgonquin
12British Strengths & Weaknesses Population much larger than that of New FranceLocated along the Atlantic coastEasier to defendFighting to save their homes & landBUT . . .British lose Indian allies after they lose at Fort NecessityIndians end up siding with the French or they stay out of the fight!
131755 Braddock’s DefeatGen. Edward Braddock attempts to evict the French from the Ohio Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)Braddock ignored repeated warnings and he & his men were ambushedBraddock was killed less than 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by relatively small French & Indian forceAmericans were stunned as British forces suffer various defeats over the next two years
14British-American Colonial Tensions ColonialsBritishMethods of Fighting:Indian-style guerilla tacticsMarch in formation or bayonet chargeMilitary Organization:Col. militias served under own captainsBr. officers wanted to take charge of colonialsMilitary Discipline:Didn’t observe military protocols observedDrills & tough disciplineFinances:Resistance to rising taxesColonists should pay for their own defenseDemeanor:Casual, non-professionalsPrima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
15William PittBritain’s Secretary of State1757 begins to transform the British war effortUnder total British controlPours $$$ into the war effortColonists forced to provide supplies, equipment, shelter and manpower
16Back & ForthMontcalm (Fr.) defeats Monro (B.) at Fort William Henry Montcalm takes Fort CarillonBrits will take it back in 1759 & rename it Ft. Ticonderoga Friction between British authorities and colonists threaten the war effortPitt relaxes policies:This renewed support & the tide of the war turns in favor of the British!
17The Tide Turns for England Pitt focuses on 3 main goals to defeat the French:Take control of…LouisburgQuebecMontrealNative-American allies abandon the French who are outnumbered, confused, exhausted, outgunned, & low on supplies
18The Tide Turns for England Louisburg fell to Brits under General Wolfe1st significant British victory of the warWolfe takes Fort Duquesne in the Ohio Valleyrenamed it Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh, PA) Quebec falls to Brits18,000 English vs. 14,000 FrenchWolfe & Montcalm both die Montreal falls to BritsEnd of French in CanadaFrench population remained behindTreaty of Paris formally ends the French & Indian War
191763 Treaty of ParisFrance --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India & all claims to lands east of the Mississippi RiverSpain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River (New Orleans) but lost Florida to EnglandEngland --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade & commercial dominance in India
21Effects of the War on Britain & America? It increased Britian’s colonial empire in AmericaIt greatly enlarged England’s debtEngland felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!AmericaIt united the colonies against a common enemyIt created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participatedBoth (towards one another)It created bitter feelings that would only intensify