Anglo-French Colonial Wars 1689-1697 War of the League of Augsburg King William’s War 1702-1713 War of Spanish Succession Queen Anne’s War (Peace of Utrecht) 1740-1748 War of Austrian Succession King George’s War 1754-1763 Seven Year’s War French and Indian War
got us into this mess! Twenty two year old Lt. Col. Washington and a group of Virginia militia sent to secure the area around Pittsburgh ambushed a small group of French soldiers, killing 10, including French officer Ensign Jumonville. They later build Fort Necessity, pictured above, to defend against the inevitable French attack. "The volley fired by a young Virginian in the backwoods of America set the world on fire." British Statesman Horace Walpole
Washington Surrenders at Fort Necessity July 4, 1754 The Battle of Great Meadows Following the Jumonville Affair, Washington returned to Great Meadows to build Fort Necessity, where he was attacked by a force of Indians and French. Now Colonel Washington surrendered his force and signed the infamous surrender terms that stated that the British assassinated Jumonville.
Savoir. Comme notre intention n'a jamais été de troubler la Paix et la Bonne armonie qui régnoit entre les deux Princes amis, mais seulement de venger L'assasin qui a été fait sur un de nos officier porteur d'une sommation et sur son escorte, comme aussy d'empecher aucun Etablissement sur les terres du Roy mon maitre A Ces Considerations nous voulons bien accorder grace a tous les Anglois qui sont dans le dit fort aux conditions ci-après. As our intention had never been to trouble the peace and good harmony which reigns between the two friendly princes, but only to revenge the assassination which has been done on one of our officers, bearer of a summons, upon his party, as also to hinder any establishment on the lands of the dominions of the King, my master. Upon these considerations, we are willing to grant protection of favor, to all the English that are in the said fort, upon conditions hereafter mentioned.
Braddock’s Road to Defeat Battle of the Wilderness-July, 1755
Battle of the WildernessCasualties One Reliable Estimate of the Casualties ENGAGEDTOTALKILLEDWOUNDED BRADDOCK Officers & Staff962636 Troops, etc.1373430484 BEAUJEU French2008- Indians60020-
Braddock’s Famous Quote During his meeting with General Braddock, Benjamin Franklin observed that Indians lying in ambush in the woods could pose a threat to troops marching in formation. Here is Braddock’s response: “These savages may indeed be a formidable enemy to your raw American militia, but upon the King’s regular and disciplined troops, sir, it is impossible they should make any impression.” In his autobiography Franklin stated: “The general was, I think, a brave man and might have made a figure as a good officer in some European war. But he had too much self- confidence, too high an opinion of the validity of regular troops, and too mean a one of both Americans and Indians.”
The Fall of Quebec: Wolfe Seals The Fate of The French September 1759
The British Landing at Quebec What’s the problem?
A Tough Task The task facing the British was daunting. Located high on a bluff above the swiftly flowing St. Lawrence, Québec appeared to be an unassailable fortress. The defenders, numbering more than 14,000 men, were confident that 100+ foot cliffs made it impossible for an invading army to make a direct assault, while rivers and tide flats made the approach from the east unlikely. To guard against an overland advance at Beaufort, the north bank of the river, the French deployed the bulk of their force there, including the forces of the Marquis de Montcalm. Québec itself was defended by combined French regulars and Canadian militiamen.
Half an Hour That Changed History In September, in a stroke of extreme good fortune, Wolfe learned of the existence of a steep path that ascended from the river to the Plains of Abraham outside of the city. Wolfe devised a new war plan that was put into action on the 12th. He first ordered the bombardment of the Beaufort shore, then loaded landing craft with soldiers and put them ashore east of the Montmorency River. Next cannon fire was directed against the city from the British battery near Point Levy. Finally, a portion of the British fleet sailed past Québec and appeared to be headed for Montreal. The impact on Montcalm’s command was one of confusion. The bulk of the French forces were deployed along the Beaufort heights in anticipation of a British assault from the east.
Under the cover of night, British forces quietly converged off of Anse Du Foulon (Wolfe’s Cove). Small boats ferried more than 4,000 soldiers ashore. At 4 a.m. on the 13th, a scouting party ascended the pathway to the top of the cliff. When dawn broke a few hours later, the city was greeted by the spectacle of a British army in battle formation immediately outside its walls. Montcalm tried to gather his widely dispersed army, but by 10 a.m. made the premature decision to confront the British army with whatever soldiers were at hand. The great battle on the Plains of Abraham lasted only 30 minutes; British ranks held firm in the face of a French advance. A devastating volley was fired when the British musketeers could see the whites of the French soldiers’ eyes. Huge numbers of men were mowed down and many others broke ranks and fled. A British counterattack quickly ended the battle. Both commanders were struck down; Wolfe lived long enough learn of his victory and Montcalm died from his wounds the next day.
With the additional French surrender to General Amherst at Montreal in 1760, the fate of the war was decided.
The Treaty of Paris of 1763 It is important to remember that the French and Indian War was part of a wider European conflict known as the Seven Years War which pitted England and Prussia against France, Austria, Russia and Spain. The French and Indian War was concluded by the Treaty of Paris of February 10, 1763. It was signed by England, France, and Spain. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, France lost Canada in favor of Great Britain and all claims to territory east of the Mississippi, while Spain, in order to recover Cuba which Britain had taken, ceded Florida. New Orleans went with Louisiana to Spain, but with these exceptions England now held the whole of North America east of the Mississippi. The Treaty of Paris was a triumph for England over her rivals in the race for worldwide empire. It was a tragic loss for the natives. France regained Goree, in Africa, and the island of Belle-Isle, off the French coast, but lost Senegal. England regained the island of Minorca. French influence in India was greatly diminished.
So an Ottawa Chief named Pontiac started a war to protect tribal interests. This struggle is known as Pontiac’s Rebellion. Turning Point:The Battle of Bushy Run
The Battle of Bushy Run- 1763 Broken Dreams, Broken Promises "[They] come here only to cheat the poor Indian(s), and take their land….“ Delaware Shamokin Daniel Some Eastern tribes hoped British promises made during the F&I War would secure their lands from expansion. Others, like Pontiac, held dreams of a return to the Indian ways and the removal of Europeans from their lands. Pontiac’s Rebellion led to a general Indian uprising in the Trans-Appalachian west. British Colonel Bouquet, on a relief effort to embattled Fort Pitt, (one of several PA forts that had been hit) was attacked 25 miles west of Pittsburgh by Delaware, Shawnee and other Indians as part of the growing Pontiac’s Rebellion. The two day battle, won by the British, sealed the fate of the Natives. Trans-Appalachian expansion by British colonists would continue, and no new negotiations or talks could prevent it.
Why Was the F & I War and Pontiac’s Rebellion So Important? (The “So What” Factor!) The war provoked the Indians into Pontiac’s rebellion, which provoked George III to draw the Proclamation Line of 1763, which provoked American anger over access to the Ohio Valley. England had fought four major wars here and abroad, and were deeply in debt- thus the taxes! England sought to enforce long neglected trade laws, further irritating Americans. (Dreaded Terms: Navigation Acts, salutary neglect, mercantilism, triangular trade)
Official and unofficial British treatment of its American subjects during the war was often viewed by the Americans as condescending and demeaning. Daniel Morgan lashing British arrogance Lack of respect of major contribution of Americans to the effort Lack of respect for American officers