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Syntactic Web Pragmatic Web Semantic Web 1 2 3 Possibility Necessity Actuality Gary Richmond, City University, New York Interoperability.

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Presentation on theme: "Syntactic Web Pragmatic Web Semantic Web 1 2 3 Possibility Necessity Actuality Gary Richmond, City University, New York Interoperability."— Presentation transcript:

1 Syntactic Web Pragmatic Web Semantic Web Possibility Necessity Actuality Gary Richmond, City University, New York Interoperability as Desideratum, Problem, and Process

2 Image by Dave Pape at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory

3 –Ontological commitment in relation to ontology creation –Three Webs –UF or W3C? –SOA and loose coupling –Outlook

4 O ntology versus o ntology Philosophy: O ntology as a particular system... accounting for a certain vision of the world AI: o ntology referring to an engineering artifact

5 o ntology versus O ntology “[I]n order to solve the terminological impasse we need to choose one of [the two readings of ontology], inventing a new name for the other: we shall adopt the AI reading, using the word conceptualization to refer to the philosophical reading.” — N. Guarino “The meaning of being would seem to far exceed the meaning of AI.”

6 O ntology versus o ntology International Conference on Conceptual Structures (ICCS) International Conference on Ontologies (ICO)

7 o ntology & O ntology “ ” “It is an obvious obligation on the developer of an ontology to discuss and defend his choice of theory and the ontological commitments to which it gives rise.” P. Øhrstrøm, J. Andersen, H. Scharfe

8 Ontological Commitment “We must philosophize, said... Aristotle—if only to avoid philosophizing. Every [one] has a metaphysics, and has to have one; and it will influence his life greatly. Far better, then, that that metaphysics should be criticized and not be allowed to run loose.” —C. S. Peirce “We must philosophize, said... Aristotle—if only to avoid philosophizing. Every [one] has a metaphysics, and has to have one; and it will influence his life greatly. Far better, then, that that metaphysics should be criticized and not be allowed to run loose.” —C. S. Peirce

9 Semantic Web 2 Actuality Three Webs: 1 Possibility Syntactic Web 3 Necessity Pragmatic Web

10 mathematics sciences of discovery : |> philosophy (as cenoscopic) : sciences: |> sciences of reviewspecial sciences practical sciences phenomenology (as trichotomic) |> metaphysics normative sciences : estheticstheoretical grammar : |> logic (as semeiotic) : |> rhetoric (methodeutic) ethicscritic Classification of the Sciences

11 triad monad dyad Valencies

12 Reduction Thesis All relations of more than three elements are reducible to triadic relations, but triadic relations are not reducible to dyadic and monadic relations.

13 1 ns 2 ns 3 ns Three Peircean categories something 1 other 2 medium 3

14 possibility necessity actuality UNIVERSAL: quality intellect & imagination reaction EXISTENTIAL:  vague,   ! specific,  !  general,  LOGICAL: 1/2 /3

15 Logic as Semeiotic: Theoretical grammar (syntactics)Critical logic (semantics) Theoretical rhetoric/ methodeutic (pragmatics)

16 10- ADIC C LASSIFICATION OF S IGNS : ADIC S IGN R ELATIONS: qualisign (tone) legisign (type) sinsign (token) as to the sign itself: icon symbol index as to the object: rheme (propositional function) dicisign (proposition) argument as to the interpretant: Theoretical Grammar: 3- ADIC S IGN E LEMENTS : sign interpretant object

17 Rule/case/result: result (these beans are white) case (these beans are from this bag) rule (all the beans from this bag are white)

18 The Three Kinds of Inference: ab duction (representation vector): th this handful of beans that I find on the table are white; All the beans from this particular bag are white,  POSSIBLY  this handful of beans are POSSIBLY from this bag. in duction (determination vector): all these beans are white; PROBABLY white.  all the beans in the bag are PROBABLY white. Th These beans are drawn from this bag, de duction (analytical vector): NECESSARILY  these beans will NECESSARILY be white. All of the beans from this bag are white, these beans are drawn from this bag; 3/ 3/1/2 3/ 3/2/1 2/ 2/1/3 (RULE, RESULT ;  CASE) (RULE, CASE ;  RESULT) (CASE, RESULT ;  RULE)

19 Inquiry: Abduction (hypothesis formation) Induction (actual experiment) process vector Deduction (of implications of hypothesis for testing)

20 Inquiry: Abduction (hypothesis formation) Induction (actual experiment) process vector Deduction (of implications of hypothesis for testing)

21 Critical logic (semantics) Logic as Semeiotic: Theoretical grammar (syntactics) Theoretical rhetoric/ methodeutic (pragmatics)

22 The Semantic Web (as conceived by W3C) Good features –URIs –Unicode –XML Problematic feature –RDF

23 The Semantic Web (as conceived as UF) Adopts ISO standard for Common Logic (CL) –Mappings of RDF and OWL into CL –CL includes XCP (an XML notation) Basic principle: “Impoverished highest level” (John Sowa) –Rich in types; poor in axioms –Axioms deleted from UF available as modules/microtheories

24 “Things should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler.” — A. Einstein “Artificial dependencies should be reduced to the minimum, but real dependencies should not be altered.” — H. He “Things should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler.” — A. Einstein “Artificial dependencies should be reduced to the minimum, but real dependencies should not be altered.” — H. He

25 Principles of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Simple/ubiquitous interfaces Common semantics encoded at the interfaces Interfaces available for all service providers/clients Descriptive—mainly not prescriptive— messages delivered through the interfaces Interfaces constrained by an extensible schema limiting the vocabulary and structure of the messages Messages restricted in format, structure, and vocabulary (yet cognizant that increasing restriction decreases extensibility & vice versa) Since extensibility is yet crucial, establishing a balance of restriction and extensibility [21] Simple/ubiquitous interfaces Common semantics encoded at the interfaces Interfaces available for all service providers/clients Descriptive—mainly not prescriptive— messages delivered through the interfaces Interfaces constrained by an extensible schema limiting the vocabulary and structure of the messages Messages restricted in format, structure, and vocabulary (yet cognizant that increasing restriction decreases extensibility & vice versa) Since extensibility is yet crucial, establishing a balance of restriction and extensibility

26 Semantic Web 2 Actuality Web Architectures: 1 Possibility Syntactic Web 3 Necessity Pragmatic Web

27 ...Syntactic Web. Pragmatic Web involves......Semantic Web which in turn involves... (Analytical vector) Syntactic Web (technical structure) Pragmatic Web (for collaboratorial & creative purposes) Semantic Web (of meaningful relations) (Order vector)

28 Vectors process order representation analysis determination aspiration 1 2 3

29 1 st : Tools in a possible suite of tools are proposed for use in a project by an actual small working group quite familiar with this facet of the project; 1/2/3 3 rd : the group reflects on the significant relations involved by means of  *k diagram observation & manipulation. 2 nd : the tools are considered by themselves and in possible combination, and especially in relation to the constraints of the project (financial, personal, etc.); 4 th : A possibly optimal ordering of relationships of elements, individuals, stages of projected development, etc., involving the suite of tools is adopted; 1/3/2 5 th : the various individuals involved work to contribute creatively as collaborative participants in the process employing the suite of tools agreed upon; 6 th : the project is facilitated through the use of the tools by the individuals using them to accomplish the particular purposes of the project.

30 “Nothing can better satisfy the needs of augmentation of human cognition and relational thinking than the fusion of technologies.” — Bernard Vetant “Data without a social context is meaningless... It must have a social context for it to support the growth of knowledge.” — Eric K. Neumann “Nothing can better satisfy the needs of augmentation of human cognition and relational thinking than the fusion of technologies.” — Bernard Vetant “Data without a social context is meaningless... It must have a social context for it to support the growth of knowledge.” — Eric K. Neumann

31 by Gary Richmond Copyright © Gary Richmond Produced by Benjamin A. Udell in PowerPoint Interoperability as Desideratum, Problem, and Process

32 Copyright ©Gary Richmond


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