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Cultural Heritage Protection Laws and Their Principles: The first step to achieving protection.

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Presentation on theme: "Cultural Heritage Protection Laws and Their Principles: The first step to achieving protection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultural Heritage Protection Laws and Their Principles: The first step to achieving protection

2 What is cultural heritage? Can mean many things to many people Difficulties with defining ‘culture’ and ‘heritage’ International law deals with this on a case by case basis through 5 conventions

3 International Conventions 1954 UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (and 1995 UNIDROIT Convention) 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage 2003 UNESCO Intangible Heritage Convention

4 T.C. BEIRNE SCHOOL OF LAW FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW The 1954 Hague Convention and Cultural Heritage

5 T.C. BEIRNE SCHOOL OF LAW FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW Baghdad Museum

6 T.C. BEIRNE SCHOOL OF LAW FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW 1954 Convention’s central principle “damage to cultural property belonging to any people whatsoever means damage to the cultural heritage of all mankind since each peoples makes its contribution to the culture of the world”

7 T.C. BEIRNE SCHOOL OF LAW FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property

8 T.C. BEIRNE SCHOOL OF LAW FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW 1970 Convention Designed to implement a system of import and export controls Art.3 - “the import, export or transfer of ownership of cultural property affected contrary to the provisions adopted under this Convention by States Parties thereto’ shall be illicit”

9 T.C. BEIRNE SCHOOL OF LAW FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW Dodington Coins

10 T.C. BEIRNE SCHOOL OF LAW FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW 1972 World Heritage Convention From iconic sites to representative list Underpinned by state sovereignty Contains few normative provisions Works through a system of co-operation World Heritage Centre (UNESCO) World Heritage Committee World Heritage Fund

11 T.C. BEIRNE SCHOOL OF LAW FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW 1972 World Heritage Convention Almost universally supported – 186 States “Parts of the cultural and natural heritage are of outstanding interest and therefore need to be preserve as part of the world heritage of mankind as a whole”

12 T.C. BEIRNE SCHOOL OF LAW FACULTY OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND LAW 2003 Intangible Heritage Convention Based upon World Heritage System Few normative provisions but developed system of co-operation Gaining significant support – over 112 State Parties

13 2001 UCH Convention UCH as “ an integral part of the cultural heritage of humanity” and a “particularly important element in the history of peoples, nations and their elations with each other concerning their common heritage”

14 Three core principles PROTECTION Prevent damage, destruction, loss, etc PRESERVATION Ensure future generations receive cultural heritage (and knowledge) in substantially the same state CO-OPERATION Achieve the above through international obligation to co-operate

15 Three core principles in UCH Convention PROTECTION Ss1(a); 4; 5; 9(1); 10(4); 10(5); 12(3); 12(4); 14; 17; 18(1); PRESERVATION Ss 2(5); 2(6); 7; Annex; CO-OPERATION Ss 2(2); 2(3); 2(4); 3; 6; 7(3); 9; 10; 11; 12; 10(6); 10(7); 11(4); 12(2); 12(6); 19 21;

16 Operationalizing the principles Legal regime that is: Clear (addresses Convention’s constructive ambiguities) Simple (allows for east interpretation) Efficient (implementation at minimum effort and cost) Enforceable (within existing State capabilities)


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