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Teaching ALL Ambareen Siraj Department of Computer Science

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1 Teaching ALL Ambareen Siraj Department of Computer Science

2 Teaching ALL What does it mean? Reaching out to ALL Regardless of their group Not be unconsciously biased in teaching  Rather practice equitable teaching  Members of all groups share the same opportunities and the same constraints with full participation [adapted from 1] 2

3 Why Diversity Matters Diversity empowers “The diverse group almost always outperforms the group of the best by a substantial margin.” [1] 3

4 Problem [Adapted from 2] Loss of individual potential among members of different groups Differential treatment of members of different groups 4 Actual differences in different groups’ roles, jobs, behaviors Assumptions about different groups’ roles, jobs, behaviors Assumptions ExpectationsExperiencePerformanceSkill

5 Solution [Adapted from 2] Increased individual achievement among members of different groups Equitable treatment of members of different groups 5 Reduced differences in different groups’ roles, jobs, behaviors Reduction in stereotyped assumptions about different groups’ roles, jobs, behaviors Assumptions ExpectationsExperiencePerformanceSkill

6 Forms of Bias [2,3] In Curricular Materials Stereotyping  Assigning traditional and rigid roles/attributes to groups Invisibility Underrepresenting certain groups Imbalance/selectivity  Presenting only a limited perspective Linguistic bias  Reflecting discriminatory words, lack of parallel terms Unreality  Avoiding controversial topics in the real world Fragmentation/Isolation  Separating debatable issues from main issues 6

7 Forms of Bias [2,3] : Book Example of Invisibility and Stereotyping Word problems in Math books involving males and females Males Buying model car and plane Painting (2 times) Walking (4 times) Making map Experimenting Making paper chain Losing weight Riding bike Running race Swimming Using calories (2 times) Driving truck Buying land (2 times) 7 Females Planting Planning Working for her father Drinking Working Making paper chain Gaining weight Growing taller Running race Missing questions Driving boys home

8 Forms of Bias [2] : Example of Fragmentation/Isolation Content in a Social Research book Topics The Economy New Space Explorations Contributions of Contemporary Women Domestic Politics Foreign Policy Decisions Scientific Achievements Energy Crisis 8

9 Forms of Bias [2] : Example of Imbalance/Selectivity Women were given the vote as a reward for their work in World War I. 9

10 Forms of Bias: Exercise Jane uses the given recipe for making 1 batch of cookies that serves 6 boys. John buys the groceries according to the grocery list that Jane makes. Write a program which uses a given recipe, asks the user how many boys to serve, computes the amounts of items needed, and then prints the grocery list accordingly for John. Is bias present? What kind: Revise: 10

11 Creating Gender Balance through Gender Fair Language Avoid exclusionary forms: Examples If a student turns in code before the due date, he will earn 10 bonus points for the assignment. If you think you are the best man for the team leader job, please volunteer yourself. The team leader would man the controls of project activities and delegate tasks to other members. 11

12 Creating Gender Balance through Gender Fair Language Choose inclusionary alternatives: Examples If a student turns in code before the due date, he or she will earn 10 bonus points for the assignment. If you think you are the best person for the team leader job, please volunteer yourself. The team leader would take charge of project activities and delegate tasks to other members. 12 If a student turns in code before the due date, he will earn 10 bonus points for the assignment. If you think you are the best man for the team leader job, please volunteer yourself. The team leader would man the controls of project activities and delegate tasks to other members.

13 Gender Sensitive OR Not? 13 Y/N Landlord Proprietor Adulthood Worker Career woman Professional Waitress Server Faculty wife Faculty spouse Flight attendant Freshman First-year student Brotherhood Community Mother tongue Native language Ancestors Man made Machine- made Expert All men are created equalWe are all created equal Best man for the jobBest person for the job Boys will be boysKids will be kids Every man for himselfEveryone for themselves Gentleman’s agreement Honorable/informal agreement Uncle Sam wants you US Government wants you

14 Avoiding Gender Sensitive Language 14 The ladies in the Parent Teacher Organization will meet the girls in the office.  The women in the Parent Teacher Organization will meet the women in the office. Calculate how much money is spent by Mr. Conners and his wife at the end of the day.  Calculate how much money is spent by Mr. and Mrs. Conners at the end of the day.  The lady doctor treated the patient.  The doctor treated the patient.

15 Exercise: Identify and Revise Open the text file (provided with this assignment) runners.txt. The first line contains an integer indicating how many records are in the file. Each subsequent line contains information about an athlete. An athlete’s information consists of his name, distance raced, and time to finish (all separated by a space). A sample file is shown below. 3 Douglas Tim Jacob Read the first line of the file. Display the number of records found in the file. Dynamically create an array of object (using pointer notation) of type Athlete (The number of element in the array should be equal to content of the first line of the file.) Read the subsequent lines and initialize the athlete objects using the member function setValues. Each athlete should have his name, distance raced and the time to finish. Use ARRAY notation to traverse through the array of objects. Display objects using the member function displayAthlete. Use POINTER notation to traverse through the array of objects. Finally, calculate the winner and display his name starting with the text “And the winner is Mr.”. 15

16 Stereotypes 16

17 Avoiding Stereotypical Notion of Roles 17 Research scientists often don’t have time for their wives and children. Research scientists often don’t have time for their families. The program should ask the nurse for her password before giving access to patient data.  The program should ask the nurse for his or her password before giving access to patient data. Mothering a child is not an easy thing to do. Parenting a child is not an easy thing to do.

18 Gender Stereotypical Expectations Research shows: Frequent Adjectives Used for Describing Good Students: 18 Males Active Adventurous Aggressive Assertive Curious Energetic Enterprising Frank Independent Inventive Females Appreciative Calm Conscientious Considerate Mannerly Poised Sensitive Dependable Efficient Obliging Mature Thorough

19 Interaction Patterns [2,3] Active Teaching Pattern:  Teachers give males more positive, active teaching attention Evaluation Pattern:  Teachers give males more verbal praise  Teachers criticize males more for rules and regulations  Teachers criticize females more for intellectual inadequacy Disciplinary Pattern: Teachers reprimand males more (mostly for inappropriate classroom behaviors) 19 Research shows:

20 Praise and Criticism [2] Research shows: 20 For Intellectual QualityFor Following Rules PRAISE For Intellectual InadequacyFor Failure to Obey Rules CRITICISM

21 Wrong Way/Right Way  Giving minimal wait time for Q/A  Extended wait time for Q/A  Probing same group of enthusiastic students  “Managing” enthusiastic hand raisers and probing others/alternating reporters  Let “shy” ones be shy  Reaching out to the shy ones.  Permitting “speaking/talking” over  Managing situations where one speaks over another 21

22 Intelligence can be Nurtured [5-8] Research shows: Environment plays a major role in development Fixed mindset can hinder learning Growth mindset can enhance learning Prolonged and repeated deliberate practice can improve performance Overcoming stereotype vulnerability improves performance gaps between ethnic/genderstereotype vulnerability groups 22

23 Gender Equitable Practices [2-4] Hold high expectations of all students. Value intellect rather than appearance. Praise, encourage, and respond to contributions of females and males equally and fairly. Establish collaborative groups composed of both males and females. Establish rules for participation. Rotate responsibilities. Use examples of females in roles traditionally held by male and vice versa. Establish peer support group. Avoid and discourage comments or humor that demean or stereotype males or females. Analyze curricular material for bias and supplement, if needed. Diversify classroom resources. 23

24 Computer Science (CS) Stereotypes Computer Scientists are nerds. CS students are geeks. CS people have a computer gene. CS material is hard to learn. CS students have no social life. CS environments are unexciting. 24

25 Dealing with CS Stereotypes Changing tools, techniques Changing perceptions with role models Changing environment or perception of environment.... Environment with ambient belonging [9] 25

26 Sense of Environment 26

27 Teaching ALL Being conscious about unconscious bias Being cautious about interaction patterns Debunking stereotypical notions Being aware of cultural differences Being equally sensible and fair to all 27

28 References 1.Lu Hong and Scott Page, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (2002) 2.Sadker, David., Sadker, Myra, 1982, Sex equity handbook for schools, Publisher: Longman. 3.Sadker, David, Ed. 1990, “Gender Equity in the Classroom”, Writer/Producer: Mary Makley 4.National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), “Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language”, (Accessed July. 3, 2011) 5.Nisbett, Richard, 2009, Intelligence and How to Get It: Why Schools and Cultures Count, W. W. Norton Publishers. 6.Carol Dweck, 2007, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, Ballantine Books, 7.Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), Ericsson, K. A. (2008). Attaining excellence through deliberate practice: Insights from the study of expert performance. In M. Ferrari (Ed.), The pursuit of excellence in education. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. 9.Sapna Cheryan, Victoria C. Plaut, Paul G. Davies, Claude M. Steele. Ambient belonging: How stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2009; 97(6):

29 Web Resources qM20x4&feature=youtu.be outu.be ng

30 Questions 30


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