Presentation on theme: "President Presidential System Head of State; Head of Government 4-year term 2 terms maximum Has at least one minister from each state. “Federal Character."— Presentation transcript:
President Presidential System Head of State; Head of Government 4-year term 2 terms maximum Has at least one minister from each state. “Federal Character Principle” Recognize various needs of a diverse country. Most powerful political figure Patrimonialism Power flows directly from leader Prebendalism Office and state revenue=personal fiefdom President heads Patron-Client System
Judicial Branch Supreme Court Judicial review (in theory) State and Local Courts 12 states fall under Sharia Courts Law guided by Muslim sayings, practices, and Quran. Possibility of controversial punishments. Vigilante “honor killings” based on sharia.
Countries Under Sharia Rule http://www.intellectualtakeout.org/library/chart-graph/countries-sharia-rule
The Case of Amina Lawal What was her offense? Describe the issues with judicial due process. Describe the gender issues relevant to this case. Why did President Obasanjo choose not to get involved? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY? Attorneys from an NGO took up her case. International media publicized the case.
“Facing Death for Adultery, Nigerian Woman Is Acquitted. ” Today, in an opinion read aloud in the regional language, Hausa, the appeals panel overturned the original conviction, largely on the basis of irregularities. It found that the lower courts had been wrong not to allow Ms. Lawal to retract her earlier confession. Moreover, the court ruled, the first confession was invalid because it was uttered only once, instead of four times, as required by Islamic law, and only one judge presided over the first trial, instead of the requisite three. The panel also cited more substantive grounds. The police officers who arrested Ms. Lawal produced no witnesses to fornication, the court said. The court also gave a nod to what defense lawyers had called the ''sleeping embryo'' theory: under some interpretations of Shariah, an embryo can be in gestation for up to five years, meaning that Ms. Lawal's baby could have been fathered by her former husband. New York Times. 26 September 2003.
Sharia Law in Nigeria British allowed aspects during colonial period. Officially allowed in Fourth Republic. HOPE End corruption Rule of law in society Prosperity Moral leaders care for poor PROBLEMS Sharia focusing on morality issues (censorship and women’s issues) Hisbah sharia police Fundamentalists Some terrorize population
Legislature: National Assembly House of Representatives 360 members SMDs Senate 109 members 3 from each of 36 states 1 from capital SMDs within state Each state divided in thirds House & Senate 4-year terms Popularly elected
Political Parties MEXICO: How did political party system lead to stability in 20 th century? NIGERIA=ethnic and religious factionalism Multi-party system reflects divisions Parties appear, disappear, and reorganize frequently. SIMILAR TO ANY OTHER COUNTRIES? Party in power uses corruption and prebendalism.
Political Parties People’s Democratic Party (PDP): Centrist, dominant party. Originated in North. Deliberately enlisted Obasanjo to attract southern Christians. All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP): leans right. Historically strong in North. Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN): leans left. Result of a merger of several parties. Initially strong with Yoruba. Congress for Progressive Change (CPC) Factional party from ANPP.
National Assembly HOUSE 1999 2003 2007 2011 PDP212213260202 ANPP79956125 ACN6931 66 CPC35 2011: 6 other parties have 24 seats SENATE 1999 2003 2007 2011 PDP65738771 ANPP2428147 ACN206618 CPC7 2011: 3 other parties have 6 seats.
New Political Party All Progressive Congress (APC) Merger of Congress for Progressive Change AND Action Congress of Nigeria New umbrella opposition party Unite north and south opposition
Comparing Political Party Systems Rank the countries we have studied. In which country is there the highest level of voter identification with a party? Which is the lowest? Describe some of the factors that impact your ranking. United States United Kingdom Russia Mexico Nigeria
Bureaucracy Formed in British colonial times. Massive growth since then. Perceived as corrupt and inefficient. Prebendalism (clientalism) Bribes
Parastatals Government ownership, or part ownership, of major industries. Oil industry Many joint ventures (Owned by Nigeria and MNC) Shell Petroleum Water Electricity Parastatals=state corporatism Govt. controlled industry has special influence over policy
Interest Groups Corporatism under military rule Parastatals Businesses worked with military Labor union leaders approved by military leaders Moving towards pluralism Labor union more independent Some business associations outside of government influence Human rights groups
Military President is Commander-In-Chief Military is national in character All ethnic groups and religions Used its multi-culturalism in the past to justify military rule Historically has played an active role in domestic politics. Used to restore order during ethnic/religious strife. Coups overthrow elected executive
Comparing Military Involvement COMPARISON QUESTION: Are there any other countries we have studied in which the military has been actively involved in domestic politics (attempts to control power)? What factors seem to cause a military to be more active in domestic politics?
Federalism Federal system of government 36 states “Federal Character Principle” Presidential Elections Sharia law Appointment of Ministers Senate “The National Question” Do Nigerians have enough in common to remain a united country?
The Business of Bribes: Nuhu Ribadu Chairman of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) under Obasanjo. Fired by Yar’Adua. Exile in 2009. Returned as presidential candidate in 2011.
THE BUSINESS OF BRIBES 1. Explain what is meant by the “cost of corruption.” 2. What does it mean to be a pariah nation? 3. How does corruption fight back?
The Cost of Corruption “Nigeria's anti- corruption agency estimates about $400bn has been siphoned off from the oil-rich country into private pockets since 1960. Globally, developing countries lose up to $40bn a year through corruption, according to the World Bank.” Source: “Nigerian police recover part of Sani Abacha's $4.3bn hoard from robbers.” The Guardian. 5 October 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/oct/05/http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/oct/05/ nigeria-sani-abacha-jewellery-police
Nigerian Terms Oga man in charge Danfo mini bus Naira Nigerian currency $1=158 Naira 20 Naira= 13 cents “ARE WE ALL GUILTY?”