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Honour Based Violence and Female Genital Mutilation Sergeant Jan Fletcher Safeguarding Team Hampshire Constabulary.

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Presentation on theme: "Honour Based Violence and Female Genital Mutilation Sergeant Jan Fletcher Safeguarding Team Hampshire Constabulary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Honour Based Violence and Female Genital Mutilation Sergeant Jan Fletcher Safeguarding Team Hampshire Constabulary

2 What is Honour Based Violence? A crime or incident that has or may have been committed to protect or defend the honour of a family and or a community. (ACPO definition)A crime or incident that has or may have been committed to protect or defend the honour of a family and or a community. (ACPO definition) The Hampshire HBV Multi-agency guidance explains that “honour relates to the concept that the reputation and social status of an individual, a family or community is based on the behaviour and morality of its members”The Hampshire HBV Multi-agency guidance explains that “honour relates to the concept that the reputation and social status of an individual, a family or community is based on the behaviour and morality of its members”

3 Communities Affected Cases encountered in following communities; Turkish, Kurdish, Afghani, South Asian (India, Pakistan etc.), Muslim Malaysian and Indonesian, African, middle Eastern (Oman, Yemen, Iraqi Kurdistan etc), European (Albania, Chechnya, Greece, within immigrant populations in France and Germany to name but a few), and some travelling families regardless of origin. It can happen to men, women and children

4 Significant generalisations in families where HBV is practiced Marriage importantMarriage important Children belong to the whole familyChildren belong to the whole family Decisions are collectiveDecisions are collective Honour is held by women, but protected by menHonour is held by women, but protected by men Families Can number 30 + with a head coupleFamilies Can number 30 + with a head couple Respect and authority is automatic not earnedRespect and authority is automatic not earned Honour is more important than an individuals health and wellbeingHonour is more important than an individuals health and wellbeing

5 Legalised honour crime “he who discovers his wife or one of his female relatives committing adultery and kills, wounds or injures one of them, is exempted from any penalty”Under the Jordanian legal Penal Code 340 “he who discovers his wife or one of his female relatives committing adultery and kills, wounds or injures one of them, is exempted from any penalty” he who catches his wife or one of his ascendants, descendants or sister committing adultery or illegitimate sexual acts with another and he killed or injured one or both of them benefits from an exemption of penalty”Under the Syrian legal code “he who catches his wife or one of his ascendants, descendants or sister committing adultery or illegitimate sexual acts with another and he killed or injured one or both of them benefits from an exemption of penalty”

6 Why is Honour important? Business usage – families with increased social status can receive material benefits such as increased income for the self- employed and greater trade for owners of shops and businesses.Business usage – families with increased social status can receive material benefits such as increased income for the self- employed and greater trade for owners of shops and businesses. Business partnerships – can be harmed if one party is dishonoured.Business partnerships – can be harmed if one party is dishonoured. Use of local places of worship – can be excluded/isolated if dishonoured or not seen to be dealing with the dishonourUse of local places of worship – can be excluded/isolated if dishonoured or not seen to be dealing with the dishonour Status in the community – ostracised and children may be rejected at school by fellow members of their cultural/ethnic/religious groupStatus in the community – ostracised and children may be rejected at school by fellow members of their cultural/ethnic/religious group Community leaders and politicians can lose support, prestige and influence as a resultCommunity leaders and politicians can lose support, prestige and influence as a result Marriage commodityMarriage commodity Sense of belonging in a perceived racist worldSense of belonging in a perceived racist world Honour in itself is a positive conceptHonour in itself is a positive concept

7 Main issues Young men and women failing to abide by the rules set by the familyYoung men and women failing to abide by the rules set by the family Forced marriageForced marriage Women and some men brought to the country under sponsorship arrangements and mistreated within the family homeWomen and some men brought to the country under sponsorship arrangements and mistreated within the family home Domestic violence/relationship difficulties resulting in dishonourDomestic violence/relationship difficulties resulting in dishonour

8 Example of how parents react Example of how parents react… Extract from Panorama documentary March 2012:Extract from Panorama documentary March 2012: Neina was disowned by her family for running away from her husband when he beat her. "Every time he hit me… my parents would say: 'Why did you raise your voice to him? You know you deserved it,” Neina knows what motivated her parents. "For them to be disowned in society is a matter of honour for them. It's easier to sacrifice a son or a daughter than it is to sacrifice a society or your extended family, who you are trying to please all the time." Neina nodded when I asked her if she was ever afraid she would be killed. "A lot of times, even now... my Dad has already said it to me: If you leave him (your husband) you are going to make me do something I don't want to do.”

9 What forms can it take? AssaultsAssaults Versions of the outlawed practice of Sati – Hindu customVersions of the outlawed practice of Sati – Hindu custom DisfiguringDisfiguring Sexual assault and rapeSexual assault and rape KidnapKidnap Forced marriageForced marriage False imprisonmentFalse imprisonment Forced/attempted suicideForced/attempted suicide Threats to killThreats to kill Forced abortionForced abortion Harassment/stalking – constant surveillanceHarassment/stalking – constant surveillance Pressure to return to home countryPressure to return to home country Excessive restrictions on home life (not being allowed to use phone, internet or develop friendships outside of the wider family/friends circle)Excessive restrictions on home life (not being allowed to use phone, internet or develop friendships outside of the wider family/friends circle) Dowry abuse – where the bride is perceived to have brought in less dowry than expected by the in laws and abused/assaulted because of this.Dowry abuse – where the bride is perceived to have brought in less dowry than expected by the in laws and abused/assaulted because of this.

10 What triggers it? Loss of virginityLoss of virginity Causing gossipCausing gossip Refusing an arranged marriageRefusing an arranged marriage Non-approved relationshipNon-approved relationship Seeking a divorceSeeking a divorce Ideological conflictsIdeological conflicts HomosexualityHomosexuality Child custody issuesChild custody issues Running away from homeRunning away from home ‘Westernised’ lifestyle eg. smoking, wearing lipstick, clothing‘Westernised’ lifestyle eg. smoking, wearing lipstick, clothing Reporting DA/forced marriageReporting DA/forced marriage RapeRape Pregnancy outside approved relationshipPregnancy outside approved relationship

11 Warning signs History of HBV or Forced marriage within the family circleHistory of HBV or Forced marriage within the family circle Intensification of restriction of movement eg. Financial controlIntensification of restriction of movement eg. Financial control Threats designed to bring the ‘offender’ against honour into lineThreats designed to bring the ‘offender’ against honour into line Suicidal behaviour of victim. Individuals who are perceived to have damaged their honour may become depressed, self harm, suicidal or even abusive.Suicidal behaviour of victim. Individuals who are perceived to have damaged their honour may become depressed, self harm, suicidal or even abusive. Sudden travel arrangements around, outside of the UK or to ‘home’ countrySudden travel arrangements around, outside of the UK or to ‘home’ country Reports of domestics at the homeReports of domestics at the home

12 Child Protection Triggers and Warning signs TruancyTruancy Decline in performance or punctualityDecline in performance or punctuality Low motivation at schoolLow motivation at school Poor exam resultsPoor exam results Being withdrawn from education by parentsBeing withdrawn from education by parents Not allowed to attend extra-curricular activitiesNot allowed to attend extra-curricular activities Self harm/attempted suicideSelf harm/attempted suicide Eating disordersEating disorders DepressionDepression IsolationIsolation Substance misuse/deteriorating behaviour eg. shopliftingSubstance misuse/deteriorating behaviour eg. shoplifting Siblings forced to marrySiblings forced to marry Family disputesFamily disputes Running away from home/misper reportsRunning away from home/misper reports

13 Who does it? Family members including in-laws and extended family members/close family friendsFamily members including in-laws and extended family members/close family friends Hired bounty hunters and “hit men”Hired bounty hunters and “hit men” Family members who live abroad or who are “under age”Family members who live abroad or who are “under age” *Police and other agencies are sometimes used to track down victims. Crimes and instances of mental illness or disability are reported to agencies to ensure response *Police and other agencies are sometimes used to track down victims. Crimes and instances of mental illness or disability are reported to agencies to ensure response

14 What to do ListenListen Believe, even if it’s beyond your understandingBelieve, even if it’s beyond your understanding Take action to protect (consider Children's Act) There may not be another chance…Take action to protect (consider Children's Act) There may not be another chance… Hampshire Domestic Abuse Forum guidance document pan HampshireHampshire Domestic Abuse Forum guidance document pan Hampshire If she is living at home, it is important to make some safeguarding plans for the future in case she has to leave as a result of violence and abuse. Details of what this might involve are available in the Home Office leaflet for BME women and children “Three steps to escaping violence against women and girls” available at:If she is living at home, it is important to make some safeguarding plans for the future in case she has to leave as a result of violence and abuse. Details of what this might involve are available in the Home Office leaflet for BME women and children “Three steps to escaping violence against women and girls” available at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/crime/3-steps- escaping-dv/?view=Standard&pubID=979904http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/crime/3-steps- escaping-dv/?view=Standard&pubID=979904http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/crime/3-steps- escaping-dv/?view=Standard&pubID=979904http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/crime/3-steps- escaping-dv/?view=Standard&pubID=979904

15 Lastly … to remember A 16 year old Iraqi Kurd was repeatedly stabbed by her father who then slit her throat, because he disapproved of her western dress and her Christian boyfriend (2003). This was after they had fled to the UK to flee Saddam Hussein’s regime.A 16 year old Iraqi Kurd was repeatedly stabbed by her father who then slit her throat, because he disapproved of her western dress and her Christian boyfriend (2003). This was after they had fled to the UK to flee Saddam Hussein’s regime. A 20 year old Iraqi Kurd was raped and tortured before being strangled to death with a shoelace by her cousins instructed by her father and uncle. Her crime was to try and escape an arranged marriage that was violent. They put her body in a suitcase and buried her in a garden (2006).A 20 year old Iraqi Kurd was raped and tortured before being strangled to death with a shoelace by her cousins instructed by her father and uncle. Her crime was to try and escape an arranged marriage that was violent. They put her body in a suitcase and buried her in a garden (2006). A 19 year old Pakistani wanted to divorce her husband (who she had only seen twice since their marriage aged 15) to marry a man she was in love with and 7 months pregnant by. Her mother held her down and her brother strangled her to death with a plastic flex after she refused to have an abortion (1999).A 19 year old Pakistani wanted to divorce her husband (who she had only seen twice since their marriage aged 15) to marry a man she was in love with and 7 months pregnant by. Her mother held her down and her brother strangled her to death with a plastic flex after she refused to have an abortion (1999). A 17 year old Pakistani drank bleach as a cry for help after she was introduced to a potential suitor during a short trip to Pakistan. She was murdered by her parents soon after their return to the UK as they perceived this act of defiance, along with her desire to lead a Westernised lifestyle, to bring shame on the family. Her parents held her down, forced a plastic bag into her mouth, blocked her airways until her legs stopped kicking. This was witnessed by all her siblings (2003, convicted 2010 following her sister’s disclosure that she witnessed the murder)A 17 year old Pakistani drank bleach as a cry for help after she was introduced to a potential suitor during a short trip to Pakistan. She was murdered by her parents soon after their return to the UK as they perceived this act of defiance, along with her desire to lead a Westernised lifestyle, to bring shame on the family. Her parents held her down, forced a plastic bag into her mouth, blocked her airways until her legs stopped kicking. This was witnessed by all her siblings (2003, convicted 2010 following her sister’s disclosure that she witnessed the murder)

16 Lastly to remember…. Hampshire cases 19 year old Bangladeshi female reported HBV - being assaulted by her brother and two sisters because they witnessed her kissing a white British male. She was kidnapped, threats to kill her were made, She was assaulted by having her hair cut off and punch / kicks resulting in ABH injuries.19 year old Bangladeshi female reported HBV - being assaulted by her brother and two sisters because they witnessed her kissing a white British male. She was kidnapped, threats to kill her were made, She was assaulted by having her hair cut off and punch / kicks resulting in ABH injuries. Sri Lankan female was taken from her home address under false pretences believing that she was going to be driven elsewhere. She was taken to an address where she was physically assaulted and threats were made to her with regard to her relationship with a male relative of the offenders. She was held against her will but managed to secure her release by holding a sign against a window alerting passers by who in turn contacted police.Sri Lankan female was taken from her home address under false pretences believing that she was going to be driven elsewhere. She was taken to an address where she was physically assaulted and threats were made to her with regard to her relationship with a male relative of the offenders. She was held against her will but managed to secure her release by holding a sign against a window alerting passers by who in turn contacted police.

17 Female Genital Mutilation World Health Org. definition All procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons. WHO factsheet (241 06 2000)

18 4 types of FGM Type 1 (known as sunna)Type 1 (known as sunna) Removal of clitoris hood or clitoris hood and clitoris Type 2Type 2 Removal of clitoris and partial or full removal of labia minora (inner vaginal lips) Type 3Type 3 Removal of clitoris labia minora with narrowing/stitching of the vaginal opening (known as infibulation) Type 4Type 4 Any other forms of piercing, inserting substances (corrosive substances or herbs), burning of the clitoris and surrounding tissue

19 Where? 28 African Countries28 African Countries Middle East, Oman, Yemen, Bahrain, Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, South AmericaMiddle East, Oman, Yemen, Bahrain, Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, South America

20 How and who? (worst case scenario) No anaesthesia or antiseptic usedNo anaesthesia or antiseptic used Girls made to sit on ice prior to the ceremonyGirls made to sit on ice prior to the ceremony Herbs placed on tongue to retract it so as not to bite it off in agonyHerbs placed on tongue to retract it so as not to bite it off in agony Pastes of herbs and porridge or ashes used to stop bleeding from the woundsPastes of herbs and porridge or ashes used to stop bleeding from the wounds Knives, glass, sharpened finger nails usedKnives, glass, sharpened finger nails used Old women in the community with no medical training, sometimes village barbersOld women in the community with no medical training, sometimes village barbers

21 Resulting injuries and damage Significant injuries result, including serious haemorrhage and broken bones.Significant injuries result, including serious haemorrhage and broken bones. Serious bleeding from clitoral arterySerious bleeding from clitoral artery Acute urine retention and infections Menstruation difficultiesAcute urine retention and infections Menstruation difficulties Consummation of marriage can take monthsConsummation of marriage can take months Post Traumatic Stress DisorderPost Traumatic Stress Disorder Difficulties at birthDifficulties at birth

22 Why? Potential originsPotential origins Rite of passage into womanhoodRite of passage into womanhood Marriage commodityMarriage commodity Honour, traditionHonour, tradition Protect and preserve virginityProtect and preserve virginity “Religion” a duty“Religion” a duty Believed to cure insanity, depression, hysteria and nymphomaniaBelieved to cure insanity, depression, hysteria and nymphomania

23 Law 14 years imprisonment14 years imprisonment Girl or women must be a UK national, resident or settled person (Immigration Act)Girl or women must be a UK national, resident or settled person (Immigration Act) Offender can be a person who assists, aids, abets, counsels or procures another to carry out the mutilation, even if it takes place abroadOffender can be a person who assists, aids, abets, counsels or procures another to carry out the mutilation, even if it takes place abroad Offender can be someone who assists, aids, abets, counsels or procures a female to perform the mutilation on themselvesOffender can be someone who assists, aids, abets, counsels or procures a female to perform the mutilation on themselves

24 What to do? Consider girls with injuries consistent with FGM and ask the questionsConsider girls with injuries consistent with FGM and ask the questions Consider risk to female babies of mums who have had FGMConsider risk to female babies of mums who have had FGM Report all requests for FGMReport all requests for FGM Consider girls removed from or missing from education, especially if you know of plans for a trip to the ‘home’ countryConsider girls removed from or missing from education, especially if you know of plans for a trip to the ‘home’ country Daughters of Eve/Orchid Project/Forward UKDaughters of Eve/Orchid Project/Forward UK

25 Forced Marriage One or more partners do not (or in the case of some vulnerable adults, cannot) consent to the marriage and duress is involved. Duress can include physical, psychological, financial, sexual and emotional pressure. Forced marriage is an abuse of Human Rights and cannot be justified on any grounds. FM is child abuse (under 18s) – a strategy meeting at an early stage is crucial. Forced marriage is different from an arranged marriage. In an arranged marriage families of both spouses take a leading role in arranging the marriage but the choice whether or not to accept the arrangement remains with the prospective spouses. Arranged marriages have worked well in society for many years. Forced marriage will be criminalised later this year…

26 Forced Marriage Statistics 1302 cases in 2013 received by the FMU giving support or advice (tel: 02070080151) 40% were children (under 18) Pakistan (42.7%), India (10.9%), Bangladesh (9.8%), Afghanistan (2.8%), Somalia (2.5%), Iraq (1.5%), Nigeria (1.1%), Saudi Arabia (1.1%), Yemen (1%), Iran (0.8%), Tunisia (0.8%), The Gambia (0.7%), Egypt (0.6%) and Morocco (0.4%). (5.4% cases unknown origin) 9.9% in South East which does not include London. 82% female 18% male 97 of these people identified as having disabilities and 12 LGBT 74 different countries

27 Family Law – current legislation The Forced marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007 came into force on 25 th November 2008. The act facilitates obtaining a Forced Marriage Protection Order (FMPO) Examples of types of order: Prevent FM Hand over passports Stop intimidation and violence Reveal the whereabouts of a person Stop someone from being taken abroad Prevent contact; and Change a name

28 Guidance for those travelling abroad for FM We can only help British citizens abroad. If they still decide to go after speaking to you, ensure they leave the following with you preferably or a trusted friend: full address and telephone number of where they are going to stay abroad passport copy Copy of tickets/all your flight details (there and back) Advise them to find out where the nearest embassy is and keep the phone number with them at all times. Advise them to take some money with them.


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