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The Cell cycle: Mitosis

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Presentation on theme: "The Cell cycle: Mitosis"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cell cycle: Mitosis

2 At what stage do the chromosomes line up in the center of the cell? A.Prophase B.Metaphase C.Anaphase D.Telophase

3 When do the microtubules retract and pull the sister chromatids to opposite poles of the cell? A.Prophase B.Telophase C.Metaphase D.Anaphase

4 Cell cycle control and mutation Normal cells halt at checkpoints – proteins survey the condition of the cell Cancer cells skip these checkpoints


6 DNA can be physically damaged, or undergo mutation – changes the structure and function of the protein coded by the DNA – mutations may be inherited, spontaneous or caused by carcinogens Cancer cells skip checkpoints due to DNA damage

7 How can DNA damage happen? A.Exposure to carcinogens B.Exposure to radiation C.Replication errors D.All of the above

8 Mutations often occur in proto-oncogenes – genes that code for cell cycle control proteins and regulatory proteins

9 Stimulates cell division when conditions are RIGHT OVER-stimulates cell division when conditions are WRONG

10 Tumor suppressor genes – stop cell division if conditions are not favorable – When mutated, can allow cells to override checkpoints Stops cell divisionFails to stop cell division

11 Example tumor suppressor gene: BRCA1: repairs DNA breaks – mutations that inactivate BRCA1 are associated with breast and ovarian cancers Example proto-oncogene: HER2: senses growth factors and activates cell division – Mutations that activate HER2 are found in many aggressive breast cancers Mutations in these are associated with Hereditary Cancers

12 A single mutation is not sufficient for the development of cancer Multiple hit model – process of cancer development requires multiple mutations may be inherited (familial risk), most are probably acquired


14 Cancer progression Angiogenesis – tumor gets its own blood supply by making blood vessles Loss of contact inhibition – cells will now pile up on each other Loss of anchorage dependence – enables a cancer cell to move to another location

15 1. Cancer cells build their own blood vessels Metastasis of cancer cells 2. invade surrounding blood vessels 3. transported by the circulatory system to distant sites 4. invade new tissue and grow in a new location

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