Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer What problems did Martin Luther point out in the Church? Why did Henry VIII create his own church? What was the goal of the Counter- Reformation?"— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer What problems did Martin Luther point out in the Church? Why did Henry VIII create his own church? What was the goal of the Counter- Reformation?
CH 12: Transformations in Europe
Gutenberg Gutenberg didn’t invent the printing press. The Chinese did, and it was modified by the Koreans. However, their machines weren’t efficient because they used wooden letters. Gutenberg changed the machine’s design, and used metal for the letters. These simple changes altered the course of history.
The ability to easily and efficiently print would cause a boom of education and literacy in Europe. This boom helped to cause the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment
Renaissance Renaissance means “rebirth” Generally from the s following the Dark Ages Followed the Bubonic Plague and the destruction of Feudalism, which helped to create an artisan class. Catholic Church was still very influential
Italian Origins The Renaissance started in Italy which was less a country and more a collection of City States. Rome, Florence, Venice, and Milan had become extremely rich through trade, and the wealthy chose to support the arts.
These city states developed rivalries to see who could produce the best art. The Medici family of Florence were some of the biggest patrons of the arts. Italy’s position in the Mediterranean made it more worldly than other countries. This contact helped ancient works like Plato & Aristotle be “reborn” in Europe and interpreted through Christianity. Humanism (focus on the individual) and a secular (non-religious/ worldly) approach help to define the Renaissance
Writing The Renaissance was the first time writers composed their works in the vernacular, or the spoken language of the people. This change allowed for more people to start reading, and promoted education
Art The Renaissance period is considered to have some of the finest artist to have even lived. These artists master perspective which gave their work depth and realism that was lacked in early artwork.
Leonardo Da Vinci Donatello Michelangelo Raphael
Northern Renaissance The Renaissance travelled north to countries like France, Britain, Germany, Holland, and Flanders These countries all embraced this rebirth as they left the disease and warfare behind.
William Shakespeare Considered the greatest writer of the Northern Renaissance. Shakespeare has 198 works attributed to him including 38 plays (13 comedies, 10 histories, 10 tragedies, and 5 romances)
Renaissance and Religion Before the Renaissance the Catholic church was considered the interpreter of all culture. Though the artists and writers of the Renaissance embraced Humanism and secular ideas, the ideas and beliefs of the Church remained largely unchallenged.
Reformation: 1517 German scholar named Martin Luther criticizes the corruption of the Catholic Church and calls for Reform He sends these ideas to an Archbishop, and posts them at a local Church There ideas will be printed and spread across Europe. Luther’s Goal is to start a discussion, but he started the Reformation
95 Theses Look at the opening introduction and the first 10 points. Take the handout. Read it quietly. Identify words you don’t understand and mark them. Write down what Luther’s main complaint/ goal/ comment is for that point.
Problems of the Church Many local Priests were poor and uneducated. They meant well and weren’t the (big) problem Higher ranking officials, like the Pope, often lived in luxury despite their vows of poverty.
The Church also sold Indulgences, or pardons for sins. Indulgences were largely sold to help pay for the building of Saint Peter’s Basilica Those who spoke against the church were either killed for Heresy or threatened with Excommunication
The start of the Protestants Pope Leo X tells Luther to retract his 95 Theses Luther refuses and goes into hiding Luther will found the Lutheran church, and many Germans abandon the Catholic church to join Some of the Princes in Germany will defy the King and join Luther. They become known as Protestants
Denominations Switzerland: Huldrych Zwingli starts a church with no holy images or music, and emphasizes study of the Bible Germany: John Calvin starts Calvinism which values hard work, thrift, and the rejection of worldly pleasure England: Henry VIII starts the Anglican Church AND makes him self the head of it since the Pope refuses to let him get a divorce.
Counter-Reformation The Church starts a reform movement known as the Counter- Reformation – Redefine Doctrine – Make Church Attendance Mandatory – Banned Books – Renewed Missionaries – Encouraged More Personal Worship – Build elaborate new Churches – Accepted the new religious order of the Jesuits Although the Church wins some people back the Reformation & Printing Press forever change Europe
The Scientific Revolution Starts with scientist, then called natural philosophers, using reasoning and observation to understand what they saw. This will be how the laws of nature are discovered.
Origins of Modern Science In the 1500s most Europeans turned to two sources for their science: the Bible/Religious Teachings and Classical Philosophers (Both have… issues) Interaction with new countries, exploration, and new ways of looking at information encouraged people to start exploring the realm of science Galileo’s Falling Body Experiment
Geocentric Theory Aristotle believed that the Sun revolved around the Earth An ancient Greek astronomer, Ptolemy, added to this explaining the solar system This idea was known as the geocentric theory
Heliocentric Theory In 1543 a Polish astronomer, Nicolaus Copernicus, determined that the Earth and other planets actually revolve around the Sun. His work was largely ignored A German mathematician, John Kepler, determined that the planets move in elliptical, not circles
Heliocentric Theory An Italian scientist, Galileo Galilei, observed the sky through a telescope for the first time and concluded the Heliocentric theory was right The Catholic Church calls Galileo a heretic and forces him to retract his views. Still the ideas spread
Newton In 1687 Isaac Newton would publish his famous work Pincipia, or Principles. This book would outline the laws of gravity, and the (three) laws of motion Because of Newton’s and other scientists ideas many began to see the world as a well oiled machine
Three Laws of Motion First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force. Second law: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass. Third law: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of the first body.
Scientific Method The Scientific Revolution’s key development was the Scientific Method, or the idea of using theory and observation to explain what happens. Two early philosophers/scientists were influential in developing the scientific method: Rene Descartes & Francis Bacon
Bacon would emphasis the importance of experiments, and how you needed to conduct experiments to really see what would happen. Descartes was a mathematician (really a LOT of things) but he believed that the human mind was capable of solving complex problems.
Important Inventions The most important advances took place in the fields of biology, medicine, and chemistry – Microscope & thermometer were invented – Carl Linnaeus [Swedish] develops a system for classifying plants and animals (Linnaean Taxonomy) – William Harvey [English] discovers how blood moves through the body – Antonie Lavoisier [French] explains the chemical process that creates fire
Enlightenment In the mid-1600s European thinkers started to apply scientific principals to the study of society and government. These thinkers felt the key to reason was the key to human progress and social problems.
The Enlightenment was a result of the of the Scientific Revolution. During the scientific revolution the goal was to understand the laws of nature Enlightenment thinkers thought they could understand society in much the same way, through asking questions.
Enlightenment thinkers took the idea that people should have a say in their government from the Greeks and Romans. The Enlightenment took an especially deep hold in Britain and France, even though thinks didn’t always agree.
British Enlightenment Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan- people were naturally selfish and needed strong leaders to keep order John Locke: Favored Constitutional Monarchy. He argued that government was based on a social contract- the people agreed to be ruled based in return for the protection of their rights.
Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations- believed the free market best served society when it was based on competition and personal interest. His work is the basis of most Economic theory. – (Invisible Hand)
French Enlightenment Baron de Montesquieu: Argued that government should have separation of power- legislative, executive, and judicial branches Voltaire: Argued for religious tolerance & freedom of speech. – I do not agree with what you have to say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it
Rousseau: Believed that Society was Corrupt, and people should find harmony with nature, but acknowledged that government was necessary & should be based on the will of the people. The Ideas of all of these Enlightenment thinkers would be known by the Founding Fathers, and heavily influenced the creation of the US government.