Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation Chapter 5 – Part 2 A The Church –Theology II Mr. Perrotti."— Presentation transcript:
The Protestant Reformation Chapter 5 – Part 2 A The Church –Theology II Mr. Perrotti
Church as One - Wounds Schism – A breach of unity of the visible Church; the refusal to submit to the Pope or be united with the Church (Definition page 173) We all remember the Great Schism of 1054Ad between the Roman Catholics and the Orthodox Catholics. The disagreement was centered around the Papal Primacy.
The Protestant Reformation The protestant reformation was an interrelated group of schisms that took place between 1517 AD and 1648 AD. Europe was becoming very prosperous and many of the princes and rulers of these countries were becoming dissatisfied with some of the old social order in which the Church played a major role as a landlord and moral judge.
Martin Luther http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j89_BAh2 Q3M.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j89_BAh2 Q3M.com Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 - February 18, 1546) was a Christian theologian and Augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Protestant Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Protestant and other Christian traditions.
Martin Luther Martin Luther’s father owned a copper mine in nearby Mansfeld, Germany. Having risen from the peasantry, Martin’s father was determined to see his son ascend to civil service and bring further honor to the family. His Father witnessed the event that changed Martin’s life.
Help from Saint Anne After receiving his Master’s Degree in just three years, According to his father's wishes, Martin enrolled in the law school. All that changed during a thunderstorm in the summer of 1505. A lightening bolt struck near to him as he was returning to school. Terrified, he cried out, "Help, St. Anne! I'll become a monk!"
He honors his commitment Spared of his life, but regretting his words, Luther kept his bargain, dropped out of law school and entered the monastery. The demands of study for academic degrees and preparation for delivering lectures drove Martin Luther to study the Scriptures in depth. Luther immersed himself in the teachings of the Scripture and the early church.
Penance and Righteousness Terms like penance and righteousness took on new meaning. What once was a struggle for him, became clear. These to virtues are important but should not be bought. He protested the Catholic Churches practice of selling an indulgence, penance or sacrifice for redemption.
He was Right and Wrong! Martin Luther was correct in protesting the Churches practice of selling indulgences, but his mistake was to down play their importance and even negate them. Forgiveness and Righteousness given to us by God when Catholics performed an indulgence (service to the Church or others) was very important for all Catholics who wanted salvation through the Grace of God.
Luther’s 95 Theses On Halloween of 1517, Luther changed the course of human history when he nailed his 95 Theses to the church door at Wittenberg, accusing the Roman Catholic church of heresy upon heresy. Many people cite this act as the primary starting point of the Protestant Reformation, although other men prior to this had begun the process Because Luther refused to recant, he was excommunicated on January 3, 1521.
Diet of Worms Diet of Worms, meeting of the Diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire held at Worms, Germany, in 1521 that was made famous by Martin Luther’s appearance before it to respond to charges of heresy. Because of the confused political and religious situation of the time, Luther was called before the political authorities rather than before the Pope or a council of the Roman Catholic Church.
Edict of Worms Luther's Protestant views were condemned as heretical by Pope Leo X. Luther was summoned to either renounce or reaffirm them at the Diet of Worms on April 17, 1521. When asked to retract his statements made in his many writings, Martin Luther responded:
Edict of Worms "Unless I am convinced by proofs from Scriptures or by plain and clear reasons and arguments, I can and will not retract, for it is neither safe nor wise to do anything against conscience. Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen.” On May 25, 1521 the Emperor issued his Edict of Worms, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5P7QkHCfaI. com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5P7QkHCfaI. com
Death of Luther Martin Luther escaped martyrdom, and died of natural causes. His last written words were, – "Know that no one can have indulged in the Holy Writers sufficiently, unless he has governed churches for a hundred years with the prophets, such as Elijah and Elisha, John the Baptist, Christ and the apostles... We are beggars: this is true."
Reformation Continues Through the next several decades many other “reformers” arose throughout Europe. The most famous of these was John Calvin and King Henry VIII. John Calvin http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SMq69TP oREU.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SMq69TP oREU.com
John Calvin John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. John Calvin believed in what is called predestination, that God predetermines the fate of humanity, to simplify, God predetermines who will be saved and who will not.
Predestination This belief contradicts many Catholic beliefs that an almighty, all knowing and all present loving God would not want salvation for all. That Catholic Church also believes that God gave man free will, which by its nature asks all me to be responsible for their actions. Through the Paschal Mystery and Great Commission, Jesus makes it very clear that he cam to redeem all, and his Kingdom is for anyone who wants it.
Our God is a forgiving God Through the Sacrament of Reconciliation all Christians have an opportunity to be forgiven by God and receive eternal grace. Jesus sent the Apostle “to the four corners of the earth” to preach, convert and forgive all those who believed that Jesus Christ is our savior. John Calvin’s theory of predestination directly contradicts the core teachings of Jesus Christ and the Catholic Church.
King Henry VIII Started the Church of England after his denial of the papal primacy over the matter of divorce. In his attempt to have a son to be his heir to the throne, King Henry had six wives. He demanded that the Church grant him a divorce from his first wife, the daughter of the King of Spain. The Church did not recognize his marriage to Anne Boleyn as the would not grant him his request for divorce.
Anglican Church His request for a divorce and his disagreement with Pope Clement over other matters of the Church, caused him to break from the Catholic Church and start the Church of England, or the Anglican Church in the early 16 century. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iF5cd- uCDrw.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iF5cd- uCDrw.com
Anglican Church The name "Anglican" means "of England", but the Anglican church exists worldwide. The Anglican church, although it has apostolic succession, is separate from the Roman church. The church spread worldwide during England’s colonization of the world starting in the 16 th Century.
World perception –Papal Primacy There is a public perception, especially in the United States, that Henry VIII created the Anglican church in anger over the Pope's refusal to grant his divorce. The historical record indicates that Henry spent most of his reign challenging the authority of Rome, and that the divorce issue was just one of a series of acts that collectively split the English church from the Roman church in much the same way that the Orthodox church had split off five hundred years before, over papal primacy.
Defining the new church The newly-separated Anglican church was given some formal structure in 1562 during the reign of Elizabeth I, Henry’s Daughter. Elizabeth stated –” What binds us together is not common administration but shared tradition and shared belief. Our belief is written down in the Holy Bible and the Articles of Religion; our tradition is in part embodied in our Book of Common Prayer.
Common Book of Prayer The 1662 English Book of Common Prayer forms the historical basis for most Anglican liturgy around the world. Like the Orthodox Schism in 1054, the Anglican Church denied papal primacy which is a core part of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Henry VIII and those to follow, did not recognize our core belief and broke of from the Roman Catholic Church.
Conclusion It is important that even before the Reformation, there was a growing tension in the Church as rulers tried to control local powers of the Church under their control. Once they had removed themselves from the control of the Catholic Church, those different Protestant Churches found that they disagreed with each other, and those disagreements continue today.
The Visible Unity of the Church The visible Unity of the Church was deeply wounded by all of the schisms that occurred during the Reformation. This period also saw the beginning of true reform the Catholic Church needed. The emergence of the Catholic Reformation brought about a new religious vigor in the Church. In the next section we will discuss these changes which where significant during the Council of Trent.
Final Meditation Through his Paschal Mystery, Jesus Christ came for all. One God, our Holy Trinity, One Apostolic Church and the Communion of Saints who help guide us to heaven.