Presentation on theme: "SOIL Chemistry 2 Option E.7. Soil Salinization (E.7.1) Soil Salinization is the affect of soluble soil drawing up salts from beneath the Earth’s underground."— Presentation transcript:
Soil Salinization (E.7.1) Soil Salinization is the affect of soluble soil drawing up salts from beneath the Earth’s underground soil and rock deposit. The biggest issues of salts occupying the top of the soil is the fact that it kills off the plants and trees that occupy the certain area, it damages man-made infrastructures including roads, buildings, underground pipes; it reduces the quality of water, and soil erosion ultimately occurs. In a opposing point of view that salinization is harmful for the environment, there is the idea that since it releases energy, it could be used as an alternative energy source.
Soil Nutrient Depletion (E.7.1) Nutrient depletion comes from the agricultural affects from what seem to be good, profitable fertilizers. Even though the crops come out almost perfect, they are missing key nutrients that can affect human health in various ways. Scientific breakthroughs agriculturally have enabled farmers to use these fertilizers that enable more profit, with less care about what happens to the soil and environment from their fertilizers. It has been proven that bugs and cows are great for adding nutrients to soil, but with all the toxins that encompass both of species’ health, there are now more toxins being deposited into the earth’s soil rather than good nutrients.
Table of Products Over Time from Nutrient Depletion Food (1951 - 1999) Nutrient & Amount of Change (Percentage) (Note: Negative Changes Are Highlighted) CalciumIronVitamin AVitamin CThiamineRiboflavinNiacin Apple20.0-55.3-41.116.0-75.0-66.7-30.0 Banana-23.8-41.7-81.2-13.00.0-100.0-1.4 Broccoli-62.8-33.9-55.9-10.1-40.0-42.9-2.7 Onion-37.5-52.9-100.0-54.856.9-41.2135.3 Potato-27.5-58.6-100.0-57.4-14.6-50.044.9 Tomato-55.7-18.8-43.4-1.60.021.846.3 Table credit from: http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/nutrient-depleted-soil.html
Soil Pollution (E.7.1) Soil pollution can cause various hazardous dangers to life, like the fact that run off water can take in the toxins from the soil, which can lead into our water systems. Ultimately, soil can be damaged severely from pollution that attributes from agrichemicals, VOCs, PAHs, PCBs, SVOCs, and other hydrocarbons. Even though most pollutants are from the burning of fossil fuels, they rotate through out environment system and become deposited into the Earth’s soil.
Common Soil Pollutants and Sources (E.7.3) Agrochemicals: Including fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides; which are used in agriculture to increase crop production and health, while getting rid of fungus and insects. VOCs and SVOCs: Stands for “volatile organic compounds” and “semi-volatile organic compounds”. These come from fossil fuels like gasoline or exhaust. Methane is the most common VOC, but also can be frequently used in agriculture. PAHs: Stands for “polyaromatic hydrocarbons”. These occur in coal, tar, or oil deposits and are let off into the environment when they are burned for fuel. PCBs: Stands for “polychlorinated bipheynls”. These are inside the liquids from coolants or transformers. They are very toxic and the production and use of PCBs have become banned in the United States.
Soil Degradation (E.7.1) Soil degradation occurs when activities that use soil or where soil plays a big role unfortunately lessens the overall health of the soil. Image from: http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/land_deg/land_deg.html#soil%20loss%20processes Effects of soil degradation leads to the decrease in agricultural productivity and negative effects on the environment, ceasing the initial environmental uses of soil.
Soil Organic Matter (SOM) (E.7.2) Soil organic matter, sometimes referred to as SOM, is organic matter that has been broken down into the soil, so much so that it is not easily recognizable. Usually soil organic matter comes from plant and animals. If bark breaks off a tree and falls into the soil and overtime decomposes, it is referred to as soil organic matter. Litter is not included into soil organic matter. Ways of saving soil organic levels include covering crops, crop rotations, rotational grazing, and reduced cropping.
Functions of Soil Organic Matter (E.7.2) Soil Organic Matter retains the ability for soil to retract to its original form before the affects of pollution or any other affects caused by humans or animals. Plants are provided nutrients from the organic matter from the various sources of matter. It improves on the structure stability, helps soil’s retaining abilities, and changes the temperature effects of soil. The levels of SOM can reduce the CO ₂ in the atmosphere and Biological Functions:Physical Functions: