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Anatomy Skeleto-Muscular System & Yoga Poses. Musculoskeletal System Consists of: Bones Cartilages Joints Bursae Ligaments Tendons Muscles.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy Skeleto-Muscular System & Yoga Poses. Musculoskeletal System Consists of: Bones Cartilages Joints Bursae Ligaments Tendons Muscles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy Skeleto-Muscular System & Yoga Poses

2 Musculoskeletal System Consists of: Bones Cartilages Joints Bursae Ligaments Tendons Muscles

3 Skeleton -Bone made up of 14% of our total body weight. -Bone get their elasticity from tough elastic rope like fibers known as collagen. -An adult skeleton have 206 bones & a baby’s skeleton have 300 bones or more.

4 Skeleton The main job of the skeleton is to -provide support for our body. -helps protect your internal organs and fragile body tissues. -provide the structure for muscles to attach so that our bodies are able to move. -In the middle of some bones is jelly-like bone marrow, constantly being produce the new blood cells.

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6 Axial Skeleton Made up of 80 bones. Skull (28) Hyoid (1) Vertebrae (26) Ribs (24) Sternum (breast bone) (1)

7 Appendicular Skeleton Made up of 126 bones. Upper Extremity (Arms & Shoulder Girdle) Clavicle (2) Scapula (2) Humerus (2) Radius (2) Ulna (2) Carpals (16) Metacarpals (10) Phalanges (28)

8 Appendicular Skeleton Made up of 126 bones. Lower Extremity (Pelvic Girdle, thighs & legs) Hip bones (2) Femur (2) Patella (Knee cap) (2) Tibia (2) Fibula (2) Tarsals (14) Metatarsals (10) Phalanges (28)

9 Bones A typical bone has an outer layer of hard which is very strong, dense and tough. Inside this is a layer of spongy bone, which is like honeycomb, lighter and slightly flexible. In the middle of some bones is jelly-like bone marrow, where new cells are constantly being produced for the blood. Calcium is an important mineral that bone cells need to stay strong

10 Bones Bones are also the body’s reservoir for calcium, critical in a variety of physiological functions including muscle contraction. The concentration of calcium is accurately regulated through an interplay between the skeletal, endocrine and excretory systems. This involves feedback loops between the parathyroid gland, the kidneys, the intestines, the skin, the liver and the bones. Bone mass decreases in osteoporosis, with the loss of estrogen in post-menopausal women. Resistance-type exercise maintains bone mass

11 Joints Joints are areas where bones are linked together. They have varying degrees of mobility. Fibrous Joint:- joined by dense irregular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers. Ex: Skull Cartilaginous Joint:- joined by cartilage. More mobile than Fibrous joint and less mobile than Synovial joints. Ex: the Manbrium & Sternum. Synovial Joint: not directly joined - the bones have a synovial cavity and are united by the dense irregular connective tissue that forms the articular capsule that is normally associated with accessory ligaments

12 Synoival Joints Bursa is the liquid which stays between a joint and tendon or muscle to avoid friction.

13 Ligaments Ligaments are dense bundles of parallel collagenous fibers. They are often derived from the outer layer of the joint capsule, but may also connect nearby but non- articulating bones. The ligaments function chiefly to strengthen and stabilize the joint in a passive way. Unlike the muscles, they cannot actively contract. Nor (except for a few ligaments which contain a high proportion of yellow elastic fibers) can they stretch.

14 Muscles

15 Muscle Contraction Concentric Contraction – Just contract. Elbow contraction. Eccentric Contraction – Stretch, same time contract. Lowering an object. Isometric Contraction – Holding an object. Joint not moving. Both side muscle contract. Isotonic Contraction- Tension not change, but lengthening same time.

16 Feet Tarsals(Ankle)-7 Metatarsus – 5 Phalanges - 14

17 Scapula

18 Shoulder Joint

19 Palms Carpals – 8 Metacarpals – 4 Phalanges - 14

20 Spine Cervical Vertebrae – 7 Thoracic Vertebrae – 12 Lumbar Vertebrae – 5 Sacrum – 1 Coccyx - 1

21 Spine sacrum, convex toward the back concave lumbar region (the term lordosis convex thoracic region (kyphosis) concave cervical region

22 VERTEBRAE, L4 Vertebral Body Spinal Disk Spinal Cord Spinous Process Inferior articulating process Superior articulating process

23 INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS Each inter-vertebral disk has a semi-fluid core, the nucleus pulposus, which is surrounded by a tough but elastic connective tissue exterior, the annulus fibrosus. The nucleus pulposus comprises only about 15% of the total mass, but that’s enough liquid to allow the disk to act hydraulically every time you shift he angle of one vertebral body with respect to its neighbor, the nucleus pulposus shifts accordingly, bulging out the elastic annulus fibrosis on one side and every time you twist, the nucleus pulposus presses the annulus fibrosis outward all around.

24 Spinal Ligaments Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Posterior Longitudinal Ligament Supraspinous Ligament Interspinous Ligament Intertransverse Ligament

25 FLEXION AND EXTENSION

26

27 Ribs & Sternum

28 Back Muscles Intertransverse Muscles: - Connect the adjacent transverse process. It connects posterior to the intertransverse process ligaments. Action:- Side Bending Interspinalis Muscles: Connect the adjacent spinous process. It connects either sides of the ligament. Action:- Extension

29 Back Muscles Transversospinal muscles:- are a group of muscles of the human back. Their combined action is rotation and extension of the vertebral column (a) The semispinalis muscles (i) Semispinalis Dorsi (Semi Spinalis Thoracis) (ii) Semiispinalis cervicis (iii)Semispinalis capitis (b) The multifidus. (c) The rotatores

30 Semispinalis dorsi arises by a series of small tendons from the transverse processes of the 6th to the 10 th Thoracic vertebrae, and is inserted, by tendons, into the spinous processes of the upper 4 Thoracic and Lower two cervical vertebrae. Action:- Extend the spine in Thoracic region Semispinalis muscles 1. Semispinalis Dorsi (Semi Spinalis Thoracis) 2. Semiispinalis cervicis 3. Semispinalis capitis

31 Semispinalis cervicis : the transverse processes of the upper five or six thoracic vertebrae, and is inserted into the cervical spinous processes Semispinalis capitis: Spinalis capitis and semispinalis capitis can be considered together. They originate respectively from the spinous processes of C7—Tl and the transverse processes of C4—T4, and insert on the occiput. Action:- Extend the spine in Thoracic region Semispinalis muscles

32 Hip & Pelvis

33 Hip Bone The pelvis receives the weight of the upper body and passes this weight on to the lower limbs via its articulations with the femurs.

34 PELVIS AND HIPS -HFGFGF Femur Pubic symphysis Hip bone It have 3 parts Ilium Pubis Ischium Ischial tuberosity – Sitting Bone

35 PELVIS AND HIPS LIGAMENTS

36 Pelvic Ligaments

37 Pelvic Nutation

38 Iliopsoas Origin: Psoas Transverse processes of T12-L5 & the lateral aspects of the intervertebral discs Side of T12+L1 & IV intervertebral disc between Iliacus Iliac fossa, base of sacrum End: Psoas Major Lesser trochanter of the femur Actions: Hip flexion & external rotation Decelerates hip extension Decelerates femoral internal rotation at heel strike Assists in stabilizing the lumbar spine during functional movements

39 Sartorius Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) End Medial condyle of the tibia Actions: Assists in hip flexion, abduction & external rotation Assists in knee flexion

40 Tensor-Fasciae Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine Insertion: Iliotibial tract (anterior surface of lateral condyle of tibia) Actions: Hip abduction, flexion & internal rotation Decelerates hip adduction & assists in decelerating hip extension & external rotation

41 adductor-magnuss Origin: Ischiopubic ramus (anterior, adductor portion) Lower outer quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity (posterior, hamstring or ischial fibers) End: Lower gluteal line & linea aspera (anterior, adductor portion) Adductor tubercle on the medial condyle ridge (posterior, hamstring or ischial fibers) Actions Hip adduction, transverse adduction & external rotation (during adduction) Provides frontal plane stabilization during stance & assists in hip extension

42 adductor-brevis Origin: Inferior ramus & body of pubis End: Upper third of linea aspera Actions Hip adduction, transverse adduction, (initial) flexion & external rotation (during adduction)

43 adductor-longus Origin: Body of pubis inferior & medial to pubic tubercle End: Lower two thirds of medial linea aspera Actions Hip adduction, transverse adduction, & (initial) flexion

44 Gracilis Origin: Outer surface of the ischiopubic ramus End: Medial surface of the superior tibia (upper medial shaft of tibia below sartorius) Actions: Hip adduction & transverse adduction Knee flexion External Rotation Decelerates hip flexion

45 Pectineus Origin: Upper border of the pubis (super pubic ramis) End Below the lesser trochanter of the femur Actions: Hip adduction, transverse adduction & initial flexion External Rotation

46 Gluteus-medius Origin: External (gluteal) surface of the ilium (just below crest) End: Posterior & lateral surface of the greater trochanter of the femur Actions: Abduction, transverse abduction, internal rotation & external rotation (during abduction) of the hip Decelerates hip adduction & internal rotation

47 gluteus-minimus Origin: External (gluteal) surface of the ilium (below origin of gluteus medius) End: Anterior surface of the greater trochanter of the femur Actions: Abduction, transverse abduction & internal rotation (during abduction) of the femur at the hip Decelerates hip adduction

48 gluteus-maximus Origin: Posterior gluteal line Posterior sacrum & coccyx Fascia of the lumbar area Sacrotuberous ligament End Gluteal tuberosity of the femur Iliotibial tract Actions: Hip extension Hip external rotation Hip Adduction (lower portion) Decelerates hip flexion, adduction & internal rotation during stance phase Decelerates tibial internal rotation via the IlioTibial (IT) band

49 piriformis Origin: Anterior surface of the sacrum (S2-S4) End: Superior aspect of the greater trochanter Actions: Lateral (external) rotation of the thigh at the hip Assist in hip extension during functional movements Decelerates internal rotation of the hip

50 rectus-femoris Origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine (straight head) & the ilium above acetabulum (reflected head) End: Quadriceps tendon to patella (via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia) Actions: Knee extension Hip flexion

51 vastus-lateralis Origin: Lateral surface of the femur (upper intertrochanteric line, base of greater trochanter, lateral linea aspera, lateral supracondylar ridge & lateral intermuscular septum) End Lateral quadriceps tendon to patella (via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia) Actions: Knee extension

52 vastus-intermedius Origin: Anterior & lateral shaft of femur End: Patellar tendon (quadriceps tendon to patella), via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia Actions: Knee extension

53 vastus-medialis Origin: Medial surface of femur (lower intertrochanteric line, spiral line, medial linea aspera & medial intermuscular septum) End: Medial patella (via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia) Actions: Knee extension

54 biceps-femoris Origin: Long Head Ischial tuberosity, part of the sacrotuberous ligament (tendon also common to semitendinosus) Short Head Lateral lip of the linea aspera below the gluteal tuberosity (between the adductor magnus & vastus lateralis) End Long Head Fibular head (primarily) & lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle Short Head Styloid process of head of fibula. lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle Actions Knee flexion & tibial external rotation

55 semitendinosus Origin: Upper inner quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity & part of the sacrotuberous ligament End: Proximal aspect of the medial tibial condyle (pes anserine) Actions Knee flexion & internal rotation of the tibia Hip extension

56 semimembranosus Origin: Upper outer quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity End: Posterior aspect of the medial condyle of tibia below articular margin (fascia over popliteus & oblique popliteal ligament) Actions Knee flexion & internal rotation of the tibia Hip extension

57 Shoulder Girdle & Neck Muscles

58 Trapezius Origin: Upper Fibers Medial third of the superior nuchal line and external occipital protuberance of the skull Middle Fibers Spinous processes of vertebrae T1-T3 & C7 Lower Fibers Spinous processes of vertebrae T4-T12 End: Upper Fibers Lateral third of the posterior clavicle Middle Fibers Medial border of acromium process Lower Fibers Inferior middle spine of scapula Action: next slide

59 Trapezius Action: Upper Fibers Elevation of the scapula Extension of the cervical spine Extension, lateral flexion & rotation of the atlantoccipital & antlantoaxial neck Middle Fibers Adduction (rectaction), upward rotation and elevation of the scapula Lower Fibers Upward rotation, adduction (retraction) & depression of the scapula Weak extensor of the thoracic spine Upper Fibers Assists in providing dynamic stability to the cervical spine and shoulder complex Middle Fibers Assists in dynamically stabilizing the scapula during functional movements Lower Fibers Assists in dynamically stabilizing the scapula

60 Levator scapulae Origin: Transverse processes of the upper 3 or 4 of the cervical vertebrae Insertion: Superior part of medial border of the scapula Actions: Concentric Functions: Elevation, downward rotations & abduction (protraction) of the scapula Eccentric Functions: Decelerates head & neck flexion (bilaterally) Decelerates scapular depression & upward rotation (unilaterally) Decelerates lateral flexion of the cervical spine (unilaterally) Isometric Function: Dynamically stabilizes the cervical spine during functional movements

61 Rhomboids : Major originate from spinous processes of the T2 to T5 vertebrae and end to scapula and Minor originate from spinous processes of the C7-T1 and end to scapula. Action: keep the scapula pressed against thoracic wall and to retract the scapula toward the vertebral column

62 Splenius capitis originates from the nuchal ligament and the spinous processes of C7 through T3-T4. It inserts on the mastoid process and adjacent occipital bone. Splenius cervicis runs from the spinous process of T5-T7 to the transverse processes of C1-C3. Actions: contracting bilaterally, these muscles extend the head and cervical spine. Contracting unilaterally, they cause side bending and rotation toward the contracting side.

63 Origin: Manubrium sterni, medial portion of the clavicle Insertion: Mastoid process of the (temporal bone) skull, superior nuchal line Action: Flexion, rotation, lateral flexion of the (cervical spine) neck Flexion, rotation, lateral flexion & extension of the (atlantooccipital & atlantoaxial) head Dynamically stabilizes the cervical spine during functional movements sternocleidomastoid

64 scalenes Origin: Anterior: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C3-C6 Medial: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C2-C7 Posterior: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C5-C6 Insertion: Anterior: 1st rib Medial: 1st rib Posterior: 2nd rib Action: Flexion & rotation of the (cervical spine) neck Accelerates lateral flexion of the (cervical spine) neck. Decelerates lateral flexion of cervical spine, cervical rotation & extension. Dynamic stabilization of the spine during functional movements

65 Serratus posterior superior runs from the spinous processes of C7 to T3 and inserts on the first five ribs. Action: elevates the ribs and thereby aids in inspiration Serratus posterior inferior runs from the spinous processes ofT l2 to L2 and inserts on the last four ribs. Action: depresses these ribs and thereby aids in expiration

66 Serratus Anterior Origin: Fleshy slips from the outer surface of upper 8 or 9 ribs End: Costal aspect of medial margin of the scapula Action: 1. Abduction (protraction) & upward rotation of the scapula 2. Decelerates dynamic scapular retraction 3. Helps stabilize the scapulo-throacic joint

67 Pectoralis Minor Origin: Anterior surface of the (3rd to 5th) ribs near the costal cartilages End: Medial border and superior surface of the coracoid process of the (superior anterior) scapula Action: 1. Abduction (protraction), depression & downward (during abduction) rotation of the scapula 2. Decelerates scapular retraction, shoulder extension, horizontal abduction, external rotation and retraction 3. Dynamically stabilizes the scapula during functional movements

68 Muscles of Shoulder Joints

69 Deltoids Origin: Anterior Deltoid Anterior border & upper surface of the lateral third of the clavicle Lateral Deltoid Surface of the lateral third of the clavicle Posterior Deltoid Inferior edge of the spine of the scapula Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus Action: Raises and rotates arm in all direction

70 Teres-major Origin: Posterior aspect of the inferior angle of the scapula Insertion: Medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus (grove) of the humerus Action: Shoulder extension, internal rotation and adduction Stabilizes humeral head in glenoid fossa (cavity)

71 Pectoralis Major Origin: Sternal head Anterior surface of the sternum, the superior six costal cartilages (2nd to 6th ribs), and the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle Clavicular head Anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle. Insertion: Intertubercular groove of the proximal, anterior humerus Action: Transverse flexion, adduction, internal rotation, adduction, abduction & extension of the shoulder Decelerates shoulder extension, horizontal abduction and external rotation

72 Latissimus dorsi Origin: Spinous processes of thoracic T7-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest & ribs 9-12 Insertion: Floor (medial side) of intertubercular groove of the (proximal anterior/medial) humerus Action: Adducts, extends and internally rotates the humerus Decelerates flexion, abduction and external rotation of the upper extremity Functions as a bridge between the upper and lower extremity Assists in dynamic stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic- hip complex

73 4- Rotator Cuff Muscles a group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. There are four muscles together create this rotator cuff. SITS Supraspinatus Infraspinatus teres-minor subscapularis

74 supraspinatus Origin: Supraspinous fossa (groove) of (superior) scapula Insertion: Superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus Action: Shoulder abduction Decelerates adduction of the arm Assists dynamic stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa

75 infraspinatus Origin: Infraspinous fossa of the (medial) scapula Insertion: Middle facet of greater tubercle of the (posterior) humerus Action: External rotation, transverse abduction & transverse extension of the humerus Decelerates shoulder internal rotation Assists in posterior stabilization of the shoulder joint

76 teres-minor Origin: Lateral border (posterior on upper & middle part) of the (lateral) scapula Insertion: Inferior facet of (posterior) greater tubercle of the humerus Action: External rotation, transverse abduction & transverse extension of the humerus Decelerates shoulder internal rotation Posterior stabilization of the shoulder joint

77 subscapularis Origin: Subscapular fossa (groove) on the anterior scapula Insertion: Lesser tubercle of the (proximal anterior) humerus Action: Anteriior rotation the humerus Anterior & posterior stabilization of the shoulder joint Anterior & posterior stabilization of the shoulder joint

78 Core Muscles

79 rectus-abdominis Origin: Crest of pubis Insertion: Costal cartilage of ribs 5-7 & the xiphoid process of sternum Action: Lumbar flexion of the spine Decelerates extension & rotation of the spine Stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex

80 external-obliques Origin: External surfaces of ribs 5-12 (Lower 7 or 8 ribs) Insertion: Anterior 2/3 of the iliac crest & the lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligament Actions Flexion, rotation and lateral reflection of the (lumbar spine) torso Decelerates extension & rotation of the (lumbar) spine Dynamically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex

81 internal-obliques Origin: Lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligament, anterior 2/3 of the iliac crest & the lumbodorsal fascia. Insertion: Linea alba, xiphoid process and the inferior (lower 2-4) ribs. Functions: Flexion, rotation and lateral reflection of the (lumbar spine) torso Decelerates extension & rotation of the (lumbar) spine Dynamically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex & intersegmental spinal stabilization

82 transverse-abdominis Origin: Inner rim of iliac crest, inguinal ligament, thoracolumbar fascia, & costal cartilages of inferior 6 ribs Insertion: Xiphiod process, linea alba, and pubis Concentric Functions: Pulls abdominal wall inward (forced expiration) & increases intra-abdominal pressure Eccentric Functions: Dynamically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movements Isometric Function: Dynamically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex

83 quadratus-lumborum Origin: Posterior inner lip of iliac crest & iliolumbar ligament Insertion: Transverse processes of the upper 4 lumbar vertebrae & the lower border of 12th (last) rib Actions Lateral flexion of the spine & extension of the lumbar spine (w/ bilateral contraction) Dynamically stabilizes lumbo-pelvic hip complex Dynamically stabilizes lumbo-pelvic hip complex

84 multifidus Origin: Sacrum, sacroiliac ligament, spinous processes of the lumbar, thoracic & last 4 cervical vertebrae Insertion: Lumbar and cervical spinous processes (up to C2) Actions: Acceleration of spinal extension and contralateral rotation Deceleration of spinal flexion and ipsilateral rotation Stabilization of the lumbar spine

85 erector-spinae Origin: Iliocastalis Lower posterior surface of the sacrum & posterior ribs Longissimus Transverse processes of lumbar & thoracic vertebrae Spinalis Transverse processes of thoracic & cervical vertebrae & ligamentum nuchae (posterior neck ligaments) Insertion: Iliocastalis Transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae & posterior ribs Longissimus Transverse processes of the cervical & throacic vertebrae & the mastoid process of the skull Spinalis Spinous processes of the thoracic & cervical vertebrae & the occipital bone of the skull

86 Erector-spinae Actions: Iliocastalis Lateral flexion of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine Rotation of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine Longissimus Extension of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine Lateral flexion of the (cervical) spine Rotation of the (cervical) spine Spinalis Extension of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine Decelerates flexion, rotation and lateral flexion of the spine Dynamically stabilizes the spine during functional movements


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