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Causes of the Reformation

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Presentation on theme: "Causes of the Reformation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of the Reformation
Renaissance Values Printing Press & Vernacular Powerful Monarchs People were unhappy with the Church Corruption

2 Abuses in the Church Church charged fees for services: Simony
marriages, funerals, and baptisms To raise money to support their lifestyle Simony Selling of Church offices Marriage of Priests Salvation through ---- Indulgences

3 Indulgences $$ ppl paid to priests John Tetzel
decreased their soul’s time in purgatory Released a sinner from performing a penalty for sins A pardon John Tetzel He offered indulgences to anyone who contributed money for rebuilding the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome. not only to living people but for their dead relatives as well

4 Early Critics John Wycliffe & Jan Hus Denied pope had worldly power
Bible had more power than Church leaders

5 Questions What are indulgences? Who is John Tetzel?
Predict which of the reasons for the Reformation will cause Luther to protest.

6 Protestant Reformation: Luther Challenges the Church

7 Background… rough childhood The storm that changed Luther’s life
His parents were peasants His parents were cruel The storm that changed Luther’s life Luther devotes his life to the church Wants to be a good Christian Unhappy with the church

8 Luther the Monk Luther spent every waking hour trying to earn his way into heaven The harder Luther worked, the more he became disillusioned by the demands of the church

9 Problems With the Church?
Popes became very rich Popes were involved in wars Many priests & monks were poorly educated No German Bibles Many also had wives & children!

10 Luther Challenges the Church
Luther became upset Problems in church & Johann Tetzel Luther’s response: The 95 Thesis This starts the Reformation

11 95 Theses Nails to Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany Major Points
Bible Alone Bible is Ultimate Authority Faith alone Salvation only attained by faith All are equal All believers are equal under god

12 Called for Modifications
Rejected 5 of 7 sacraments, not in the Bible Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, prayers to saints Allow clergy to marry

13 Luther’s Response at Worms
I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen. Go over Video Clip

14 Response of the Church Pope Leo issued a decree Luther excommunicated
Threaten excommunication Luther refuses to recant Luther excommunicated Though Luther was excommunicated; his ideas still spread. How?

15 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Diet at Worms Devout Catholic
Ordered Luther to trial Luther refused to recant Edict of Worms

16 Edit of Worms Charles declared Luther an outlaw & heretic
What does this mean for Luther? What happened to Luther after the trial? Some princes helped him Luther’s followers became known as Lutherans Anyone that protested against the Catholic Church become known as Protestants

17 Peasant Revolts Peasants Revolt Unhappy Luther upset
Wanted reform like Luther Social & Economic End Serfdom Peasants Revolt Luther upset Revolt is not how to do things Princes’ armies crush revolt, told by Luther Peasants reject Luther

18 German Princes German Princes War with Charles V Some shared beliefs
Some want land back From Charles V Others remained loyal to the Pope War with Charles V Charles V tried to force Lutheran princes back into the Catholic Church Protestants vs. Catholics Peace of Augsburg

19 Peace of Augsburg (1555) Peace of Augsburg allowed princes to decide the religion of their land: Catholic or Lutheran Most northern states: Lutheran Southern states: Catholic

20 Henry VIII Breaks With the Church

21 Henry’s Background Became king of England at age 18
Henry was loyal to the church Henry criticized Luther “Limb of the Devil” The Pope called Henry VIII “Defender of the Faith”

22 Cause of the Reformation in England
PROBLEM!!! Feared a civil war after his death Henry needed an heir Henry & Catherine of Aragon had one child: Mary ~ no woman had ever successfully claimed the throne Henry and Catherine’s five other children had all died at birth

23 Henry’s Solution? A new wife!
Henry thought his wife was the problem (Genes??) He wanted to marry another woman: Anne Boleyn The problem? The Pope was under the influence of Charles V Catherine’s cousin He would not grant the divorce

24 Henry’s Plan B? Separate From the Church!
Henry asked Parliament to strip the Pope of his power over England The Act of Supremacy This act declared the king the head of the Church in England Parliament then gave Henry his divorce He married Anne Boleyn

25 Plan C? Anne Boleyn What was Henry to do? Jane Seymour
Gave birth to a daughter ~ Elizabeth What was Henry to do? Charge her w/treason Have her beheaded Jane Seymour Gave him a son~ Edward She died and he married 3 more times No more children

26 Catherine of Aragon (Divorced)
Anne Boleyn (Beheaded) Jane Seymour (Died) Anne of Cleves (Divorced) Catherine Howard (Beheaded) Catherine Parr (Survived)

27 Effects of the Reformation in England
Religious Turmoil Edward ~ guided by devout Protestants Introduced protestant reforms to England Mary ~ Catholic Returned the English Church to the rule of the pope Violence – “Bloody Mary” Not everyone wanted to return to the Catholic Church She had many Protestants killed

28 Elizabeth Establishes the Church of England ~Anglican Church
No Pope – Elizabeth Only legal church in England For Protestants Priests allowed to marry Sermons in English For Catholics Kept things like rich robes Revised the services

29 New Religions & The Spread of the Reformation

30 Roman Catholic Pope is head of Church Canon Law
Salvation by indulgences Priest interprets Bible for everyone

31 Protestant Anabaptism:
a member of a 16th-century Protestant movement promoting the doctrine of adult baptism on the grounds that only adults can accept and declare their faith on their own behalf

32 Lutheran Martin Luther: Germany Bible is word of God
All believers are equal Believers interpret bible Salvation attained by faith alone

33 Anglican Henry VIII English Monarch head of Church Church of England
Salvation by faith Bible source of revealed truth Believers interpret Bible w/ tradition and reason

34 John Calvin Follower of Luther Studied law & philosophy in Fr.
Fled to Switz. to avoid persecution The Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) Summary of Protestant philosophy Influential in spreading Protestant beliefs

35 Calvin’s Main Ideas Theocracy: Predestination People naturally sinful
God would select a “chosen few” to be free of sin How is this different from Luther’s ideas? Theocracy: Government controlled by religious leaders The chosen ones would rule in society and glorify god Salvation reached through faith alone Bible only source of truth

36 Calvin’s Geneva Calvin & his followers ran the city
Fines and other punishments for fighting, swearing, laughing in church, or dancing. Closed theatres, no elaborate dress Those who broke the rules Imprisoned, excommunicated, banished If you preached different doctrines Might be burned at the stake

37 John Knox Knox visited Geneva Knox established Protestant communities
Knox brought Protestantism to Scotland Knox established Protestant communities governed by a small group of elders Presbyters (Presbyterians)

38 Protestant Churches Spread
French Calvinists = Huguenots Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Scotland, England were all dominated by Protestants by the end of the 1500s

39 The Counter-Reformation

40 Ignatius A Catholic from Spain
Injured in battle with the French During recovery, thought about his relationship with god Spiritual Exercises Day-by-day plan for prayer and study Believed they cleansed his soul Founded the Society of Jesus Jesuits

41 The Three Activities of the Jesuits
Created schools where priests were well educated Converted non-Christians Devoted to stopping the spread of Protestantism

42 Reform of the Church Goals:
Strengthen the Catholic Church Combat Protestantism Popes took action to fix problems w/in the church Investigated simony, indulgences, and other abuses in the church Called Council of Trent into session

43 The Council of Trent The Pope’s interpretation of the Bible was final.
Those who disagreed were heretics Christians were not saved by faith alone It was faith and good deeds The Bible and Church shared equal authority Indulgences, pilgrimages and other church practices were acceptable

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