2 Sternocleidomastoid Location – Neck Movement – Head Flexion and rotationExtraOrigin -Manubrium of sternum and medial portion of clavicle.Insertion –Mastoid process of temporal bone and superior nuchal line of occipital bone.Nerve Supply –Accessory Nerve (Cranial nerve XI)
3 Pectoralis Major Location – Movement – Extra Origin – Insertion – ChestMovement –Shoulder FlexionInternal RotationShoulder AdductionExtraOrigin –Sternal end of clavicle, sternum, cartilage of ribs 1-6 and aponeurosis of external oblique muscle.Insertion –Fibers converge to insert by a short tendon into intertubercular groove of humerus.Nerve Supply –Lateral and Medial Pectoral NervesPulls rib cage upward, thus helps in climbing, throwing, pushing and forced inspiration.
4 Pectoralis Minor Location – Chest Movement – Stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wallExtrasOrigin –3rd to 5th ribs near their costal cartilagesInsertion –Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapulaNerve Supply –Medial pectoral nerves (C8, T1)
5 Biceps Brachii Location- Anterior upper arm Movement – Elbow Flexion Forearm SupinationExtraHas 2 origins (bi)Short head - coracoid processLong head – tubercle above glenoid cavityInsertionRadial TuberosityNerve SupplyMusculocutaneous Nerve
6 Brachialis Location – Proximal to the elbow in supination. Movement – Elbow flexionExtrasOrigin –Distal half of anterior surface of humerusInsertion –Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulnaNerve Supply –Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 and C6) (C5, C6)
7 Brachioradialis Location – Front of forearm. Movement – Elbow Flexion Forearm PronationForearm SupinationExtrasOrigin –Lower 2/3 of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus.Insertion –Styloid process of radius.Nerve Supply –Radial Nerve
8 Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Location –Anterior aspect of the elbow in supination.Movement –Flexes proximal phalanges at matacarpophalangeal joints .Flexes middle phalanges at proximal interphalangeal joints of medial 4 fingers.ExtrasOrigin -Humeroulnar head: medial epicondyle of humerus, ulnar collateral ligament, and coronoid process of ulna; Radial head: superior half of anterior border of radiusInsertion –Bodies of middle phalanges of digits 2 - 5Nerve Supply –Median nerve (C7, C8 and T1) (C7, C8, T1)
9 Palmaris Longus Location- Inside of forearm Movement- Weak wrist flexionTenses skin and fascia of palm during hand movements.ExtraOrigin-Medial epicondyle of humerusInsertion-Palmar aponeurosis, skin and fascia of palm.Nerve Supply-Median nerveSome people don’t have one (14%)Touch your pointer finger with your 5th finger and flex your wrist to see it.
10 Pronator Teres Location – Anterior aspect of the elbow in supination. Movement –Forearm PronationElbow FlexionExtrasOrigin -Medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulnaInsertion –Middle of lateral surface of radiusNerve Supply –Median nerve (C6 and C7) (C6, C7)
11 Trapezius Location- Upper Back Movement – Stabilizes, raises, retracts, and rotates ScapulaExtraOriginOccipital bone, spines of C7-T12InsertionAlong Acromion and spine of scapula and Lat. 1/3 of clavicleNerve SupplyAccessory Nerve
12 Levator Scapulae Location – Back of the neck. Movement – Scapula Elevation.ExtrasOrigin –Transverse processes of C1 – C4Insertion –Medial border of scapula, superior to the spine.Nerve Supply –Cervical spinal nervesDorsal scapular nerve
13 Rhomboid Minor Location – Upper back Between scapula and spine Movement –Retract scapulaRotate scapula to depress glenoid cavityFix scapula to thoracic wallExtraOrigin –Nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae.Insertion –Medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle.Nerve Supply –Dorsal scapular nerve ( C4 and C5)
14 Rhomboid Major Location – Back Between the scapula and the spine Movement –Retract scapula and rotate it to depress glenoid cavityFix scapula to thoracic wallExtrasOrigin –Spinous processes of T2 - T5 vertebraeInsertion –Medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angleNerve Supply –Dorsal scapular nerve ( C4 and C5) (C4, C5)
15 Triceps Brachii Location – Back of the arm Movement – Elbow Extension ExtrasOrigin –LH: Infraglenoid tubercle of scapulaLTH: Posterior shaft of humerusMH: Posterior humeral shaft distal to radial groove.Insertion –By common tendon into olecranon process of ulna.Nerve Supply –Radial Nerve
16 Latissimus Dorsi Location – Inferior back Movement – Shoulder ExtensionShoulder AdductionShoulder Internal rotationExtrasOrigin -Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribsInsertion –Floor of intertubercular groove of humerusNerve Supply –Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, and C8) (C6, C7, C8)
17 Supraspinatus Location – Top of the shoulder On the scapula Movement – Shoulder abduction.ExtraOrigin –Supraspinous fossaInsertion –Superior facet of the greater tubercle of humerus.Nerve Supply –Suprascapular nerve.Part of the rotator cuff.Stabilizes the humeral head in the glenoid fossa.Action is controversial.
18 Infraspinatus Location – Scapula Back Movement – Helps to hold head of humerus in gleniod cavity.Stabilizing shoulder jointExternal rotationExtraOrigin –Infraspinous fossa of scapula.Insertion –Greater tubercle of humerus posterior to insertion of supraspinatus.Nerve Supply –SuprascapularPart of Rotator Cuff.
19 Teres Minor Location – Back Inferior scapula Movement – Shoulder External Rotation.Helps hold humeral head in glenoid cavity.ExtrasOrigin -Superior part of lateral border of scapulaInsertion –Inferior facet on greater tuberosity of humerusNerve Supply –Axillary nerve (C5 and C6) (C5, C6)
20 Subscapularis Location – Inside of the scapula Movement – Shoulder AdductionShoulder Internal Rotation.ExtrasOrigin -Subscapular fossa of scapulaInsertion –Lesser tuberosity of humerusNerve Supply –Upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5, C6 and C7) (C5, C6, C7)
21 Teres Major Location – Back Lower scapula Movement – Shoulder adductionShoulder internal rotationExtrasOrigin –Dorsal surface of inferior angle of scapula.Insertion –Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus.Nerve Supply –Subscapular nerve
22 Serratus Anterior Location – Side of the rib cage Movement – Draws scapula forward and upward.Abducts and rotates scapula.Stabilizes vertebral border of scapula.ExtrasOrigin -Superolateral surfaces of upper 8 or 9 ribs at the side of chestInsertion –Vertebral border of scapulaNerve Supply –Long thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7) (C5, C6, C7)
23 Anterior Deltoid Location – Superior and anterior aspect of the shoulder.Movement –Shoulder FlexionShoulder Internal rotationExtrasOrigin -Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapulaInsertion –Deltoid tuberosity of humerusNerve Suppley –Axillary nerve (C5 and C6) (C5, C6)
24 Middle Deltoid Location- Top of shoulder Upper arm Movement- Shoulder Abduction (3)Extras3 total deltoid musclesOrigin-Embraces insertion of the trapeziuslateral 1/3 of clavicleacromion and spine of scapulaInsertion-Deltoid tuberosity of humerus.Nerve Supply-Axillary nerve
25 Posterior Deltoid Location – Top and posterior of shoulder Movement – Transverse Extension.Shoulder Abduction (3)ExtrasOrigin –Lower lip of posterior border of spine of scapula as far back as medial end.Insertion –Deltoid tuberosity of humerus.Nerve Supply –Axillary Nerve
26 Iliopsoas Psoas major Psoas minor Iliacus Location – Abdomen Combination of 3 muscles:Psoas majorPsoas minorIliacusLocation –AbdomenMovement –Torso FlexionHip FlexionExtrasOrigin –Anterior surfaces and lower borders of transverse processes of L1 - L5 and bodies and discs of T12 - L5Insertion –Lesser trochanterNerve Supply –Direct fibers of L1 - L3 of lumbar plexus (L1, L2, L3)
27 Sartorius Location – Anterior aspect of the thigh Medial aspect of the knee.Movement –Hip FlexionHip External RotationKnee Flexion.ExtrasOrigin –Anterior superior iliac spine .Insertion –Superior aspect of the medial surface of the tibial shaft near the tibial tuberosity.Nerve Supply –Femoral nerve (L2, L3, L4)
28 Rectus Femoris Location- Middle, Front Thigh Movement – Knee Extension Hip FlexionExtraOriginAnterior Inferior Illiac SpineInsertionPatella and Tibial Tuberosity via Patellar LigamentNerve SupplyFemoral Nerve
29 Vastus Lateralis Location – Anterior aspect of thigh. Movement – Knee ExtensionExtrasOrigin –Superior portion of intertrochanteric line, anterior and inferior borders of greater trochanter, superior portion of lateral lip of linea aspera, and lateral portion of gluteal tuberosity of femur.Insertion –Lateral base and border of patella; also forms the lateral patellar retinaculum and lateral side of quadriceps femoris tendon.Nerve Supply –Muscular branches of femoral nerve (L2, L3, L4)
30 Vastus Medialis Location – Front of thigh Movement – Extends knee Stabilize patellaExtrasOrigin –Linea aspera, intertrochanteric line.Insertion –As for rectus femorisNerve Supply –Femoral NervePart of the Quadriceps muscle group.Tear drop on the inside is called the ‘oblique.’
31 Vastus Intermedius Location – Anterior aspect of the thigh. Movement – Knee Extension (4)ExtrasOrigin –Superior 2/3 of anterior and lateral surfaces of femur; also from lateral intermuscular septum of thighInsertion –Lateral border of patella; also forms the deep portion of the quadriceps tendonNerve Supply –Muscular branches of femoral nerve (L2, L3, L4)
32 Anterior Tibialis Location – Front of lower leg Movement – Dorsiflexion of ankle.ExtraOrigin –Lateral condyle and upper 2/3 of tibial shaft; interosseous membrane.Insertion –By tendon into inferior surface of medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bone.Nerve Supply –Deep fibular nerveMuscle associated with shin splints.
33 Gluteus Maximus Location – Butt Backside Movement – Hip extension. Hip external rotation.Hip abduction.ExtrasOrigin –Posterior aspect of dorsal ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line, posterior superior iliac crest, posterior inferior aspect of sacrum and coccyx, and sacrotuberous ligament.Insertion –Primarily in fascia lata at the iliotibial band; also into the gluteal tuberosity on posterior femoral surface.Nerve Supply –Inferior gluteal nerve
34 Gluteus Medius Location- Back side. Buttocks Movement- Hip Abduction Hip internal rotationExtrasOrigin-Between anterior and posterior gluteal lines on lateral surface of iliumInsertion-By short tendon into lateral aspect of greater trochanter of femurNerve Supply-Superior gluteal nerveImportant in walkingMuscle of limb planted on ground tilts or holds pelvis in abduction so that pelvis on side of swinging limb does not sag.The foot of swinging limb can thus clear the ground.
35 Gluteus Minimus Location – Lateral aspect of the hip. Movement – Hip Abduction (3)Hip Internal rotation.ExtrasOrigin –Dorsal ilium between inferior and anterior gluteal lines; also from edge of greater sciatic notchInsertion –Anterior surface of greater trochanterNerve Supply –Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1) (L4, L5, S1)
36 Gastrocnemius Location – Posterior lower leg Movement – Plantarflexes foot when knee extendedKnee flexion when ankle dorsiflexedExtraOrigin –By two heads from medial and lateral condyles of femur.Insertion –Posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon.Nerve Supply –Tibial Nerve
37 Soleus Location – Posterior aspect of the lower leg. Under the gastrocnemius.Movement –Ankle PlantarflexionExtrasOrigin –Posterior aspect of fibular head, upper 1/4 - 1/3 of posterior surface of fibula, middle 1/3 of medial border of tibial shaft, and from posterior surface of a tendinous arch spanning the two sites of bone originInsertion –Eventually unites with the gastrocnemius aponeurosis to form the Achilles tendon, inserting on the middle 1/3 of the posterior calcaneal surfaceNerve Supply –Tibial nerve (S1, S2) (S1, S2)
38 Semitendinosus Location – Posterior aspect of the thigh. Movement – Knee FlexionHip ExtensionTibia internal rotation when knee is flexed.ExtrasOrigin –From common tendon with long head of biceps femoris from superior medial quadrant of the posterior portion of the ischial tuberosityInsertion –Superior aspect of medial portion of tibial shaftNerve Supply –Tibial nerve (L5, S1, S2)
39 Semimebranosus Location – Back of the thigh. Movement – Knee Flexion Hip extension and internal rotation.ExtraPart of the Hamstring group.Origin –Ischial tuberosityInsertion –Medial condyle of tibia.Nerve Supply –Sciatic nerve.
40 Biceps Femoris Location – Back of the thigh. Movement – Knee Flexion (3)Rotates the tibia laterally.Extends the hip jointExtrasOrigin –Common tendon with semitendinosus from superior medial quadrant of the posterior portion of the ischial tuberosityInsertion –Primarily on fibular head; also on lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyleNerve Supply –Tibial nerve (L5, S1, S2)
41 Tensor Fasciae Latae Location – Lateral aspect of the upper leg. Movement –Helps stabilize the hip and knee by putting tension on the iliotibial band of fascia.ExtrasOrigin -Anterior superior iliac spine, outer lip of anterior iliac crest and fascia lataInsertion –Iliotibial bandNerve Supply –Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1) (L4, L5, S1)
42 Adductor Longus Location – Inside of the thigh Movement – Adduction of the hipHip flexionExtraOrigin –Pubic body just below the pubic crest.Insertion –Middle 1/3 of the linea asperaNerve Supply –Obturator nerve
43 Adductor Brevis Location – Inside of thigh Movement – Adducts hip. Flexes hip.Externally rotates hip.ExtrasOrigin –Anterior surface of inferior pubic ramus, inferior to origin of adductor longus.Insertion –Pectineal line and superior part of medial lip of linea aspera.Nerve Supply –Obturator nerve
44 Adductor Magnus Location – Medial aspect of the thigh. Movement – Hip Adduction (3)Hip Flexion (Horizontal fibers)Hip Extension (Vertical fibers)ExtrasOrigin –Inferior pubic ramus, ischial ramus, and inferolateral area of ischial tuberosityInsertion –Gluteal tuberosity of femur, medial lip of linea aspera, medial supracondylar ridge, and adductor tubercleNerve Supply –Posterior division of obturator nerve innervates most of the adductor magnus; vertical or hamstring portion innervated by tibial nerve (L2, L3, L4)
45 Gracilis Location – Inside of the thigh. Movement – Hip adduction, flexion, and internal rotation.ExtrasOrigin –Inferior ramus and body of pubis and adjacent ischial ramus.Insertion –Medial surface of tibia just inferior to its medial condyle (Pes Anserinus).Nerve Supply –Obturator nerve.
46 Pectineus Location – Inside of the thigh. Movement – Hip Adduction Hip FlexionExtrasOrigin –Pecten pubis and pectineal surface of the pubisInsertion –Pectineal line of femurNerve Supply –Femoral nerve usually, although it may sometimes receive additional innervation from the obturator nerve as well (L2, L3, L4)
47 Peroneus Longus Location – Lateral, lower leg Movement – Ankle Eversion.Ankle PlantarflexionSupports transverse archExtrasOrigin –Head of fibulaUpper ½ - 2/3 of lateral fibular shaft surface.Insertion –Plantar posterolateral aspect of medial cuneiform.Lateral side of 1st metatarsal base.Nerve Supply –Superficial peroneal nerve.
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