Presentation on theme: "FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6"— Presentation transcript:
1 FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 Module 6, Core Topics 11 and 12:Takeoff, Landings, and Low Altitude ManeuveringAircraft Operational LimitationsJim Leavitt, CFI WS NPL AEA x214Todd E Burk, CFI WS POR ASW
2 This presentation is approved as a means to provide CFIs with orientation for FAASTeam Approach and Landing Clinics.Additional training to compliment this presentation will be available for CFIs who will conduct a Takeoff and Landing Clinic.FPMs may use this presentation to accomplish instructor training required for Approach and Landing “Core Group” members who attend CFI Workshop 6. Those attendees who volunteer will conduct “Landing Clinics” associated with the FAASTeam’s Approach and Landing Initiative. Additional training will be provided for those Core Group members.
3 Takeoff, Landing, and Low Altitude Maneuvering ~ Module #6 – Core Topic #11,Takeoff, Landing, and Low Altitude Maneuvering ~Takeoff, approach and landing proceduresAircraft control in various Areas of OperationIdentify strengths and weaknessesLet’s take a look as some statisticsEncourage Safety through AwarenessAre all of your students registered at FAASafety.gov?
4 Clinic ObjectivesReduce the Risk of Accidents due to Improper Takeoffs, Landings and Loss of Aircraft Control.Evaluating Takeoff and Landing Procedures and Techniques.Encourage you to maintain your Takeoff and Landing skills through a Proficiency Program. (WINGS)Review recent General Aviation accident statistics for Takeoff and Landings to Increase Awareness and Safety.Encourage you to maintain your Takeoff and Landing skills through a proficiency program. (WINGS)Briefly discuss the WINGS Program and offer enrollment handout information.4
5 Why Focus on Take-offs, Landings and Aircraft Control? The 2007 AOPA Nall report showed:16.4% Of General Aviation Accidents occurred during the Take-Off phase of Flight.Statistics indicate 16.4% of GA accidents occur during the TAKEOFF phase of flight.This was a take off accident with a student pilot attempting a touch and go with a 20 kt. Tailwind. The pilot was unhurt.5
6 Why Focus on Take-off and Landings? The 2007 AOPA Nall report showed:40.3% Of accidents occurred during the Landing phase of Flight.Statistics indicate 40.3% of GA accidents occur during the LANDING phase of flight.The pilot of this P210 attempted to land going too fast. With a 17 knot tailwind the airplane was allowed to touchdown in the last 1/3 of the runway, went off the side of the runway, struck some lights, signs and fence, went into a ditch and came to rest on an access road just north of the airport.Interesting point, this pilot thought something like this would never happen to him. A rejected landing would have been the right choice.6
12 Always keep the Aircraft on the Centerline of the Taxiway and Runway. Centerline ControlRead the Slide and discuss the importance of centerline control. Discuss proper rudder control, nose steering and attention outside of the aircraft.Always keep the Aircraft on the Centerline of the Taxiway and Runway.12
13 Normal Takeoff ReviewRead the Slide and discuss a normal takeoff. Emphasize centerline control, and use of recommended manufacturer speeds and proper use of performance charts.13
14 Normal Take Off - Common Errors Failure to adequately clear the area prior to taxiing into position on the active runway.Abrupt use of the throttle.Failure to check engine instruments for signs of malfunction after applying takeoff power.Failure to anticipate the airplane’s left turning tendency on initial acceleration.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook14
15 Normal Take Off - Common Errors (continued) Overcorrecting for left turning tendency.Relying solely on the airspeed indicator rather than developed feel for indications of speed and airplane controllability during acceleration and lift-off.Failure to attain proper lift-off attitude.Inadequate compensation for torque/P-factor during initial climb resulting in a sideslip.Over-control of elevators during initial climb out.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook15
16 Crosswind Takeoff Review Talk about proper use of flight controlsRudder provides directional control until airborneDiscuss How aileron controls drift once airborneHorizontal component of liftTransitioning to a crab once airborne and no further contact with ground is assured,Discuss various crosswind techniques i.e. rotate higher airspeed, lift up onto one wheel.16
17 Application of Aileron Discuss proper technique for application of aileron in crosswind takeoff.17
18 X-Wind Take Off - Common Errors Failure to adequately clear the area prior to taxiing onto the active runway.Using less than full aileron pressure into the wind initially on the takeoff roll.Mechanical use of aileron control rather than sensing the need for varying aileron control input through feel for the airplane.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook18
19 X-Wind Take Off - Common Errors (Continued) Premature lift-off resulting in side-skipping.Excessive aileron input in the latter stage of the takeoff roll resulting in a steep bank into the wind at lift-off.Inadequate drift correction after lift-off.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook19
20 Slow Flight or MCADiscuss the purpose of flight at MCA? (control feel, sloppiness at slow speeds)20
21 What’s going on with drag vs airspeed? Excellent insight from Todd Burk, FAASTeam Program Manager, Central Region“I often compare this graph to a person that has financial stability or "money in the bank". If you spend more than you make then you will go bankrupt. How do you make money? With more thrust and a reduced angle of attack. How do you spend money? By reducing the power and increasing the angle of attack i.e. beginning the landing flare. The idea is to be out of altitude and money at the same time, not one before the other. If you get that sinking feeling and you haven't contacted the ground yet, you need to start adding money to the bank before you go bankrupt. By the same token, if you can add back pressure and initiate a climb,before you touch down, you have too much money in the bank. (Exchange of energy for altitude)”
22 FAA-H-8083-3A Airplane Flying Handbook DefinitionThe Airplane Flying Handbook FAA-H A Defines Minimum Controllable airspeed as a speed at which any further increase in angle of attack or load factor, or reduction in power will cause an immediate stall.FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook22
23 Slow Flight - Common Errors Failure to adequately clear the area.Inadequate back-elevator pressure as power is reduced, resulting in altitude loss.Excessive back-elevator pressure as power is reduced, resulting in a climb, followed by a rapid reduction in airspeed and “mushing.”Inadequate compensation for adverse yaw during turns.Read the Slide and discuss. Inadequate compensation for adverse yaw or improper use of rudder (coordination) can result in loss of control and spins in the event of a stall.FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook23
24 Slow Flight - Common Errors (Continued) Fixation on the airspeed indicator.Failure to anticipate changes in lift as flaps are extended or retracted.Inadequate power management.Inability to adequately divide attention between airplane control and orientation.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook24
25 FAA-H-8083-3A Airplane Flying Handbook Steep TurnsTalk through a steep turnClearing the areaTopicsAdverse YawCoordinationNeed for additional power due to load factor and induced dragStall speed increase due to load factorSmooth coordinated (rudder) Roll in and roll outFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook25
26 Steep Turns - Common Errors Failure to adequately clear the area.Excessive pitch change during entry or recovery.Attempts to start recovery prematurely.Failure to stop the turn on a precise heading.Excessive rudder during recovery, resulting in skidding.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook26
27 Steep Turns - Common Errors (continued) Inadequate power management.Inadequate airspeed control.Poor coordination.Gaining altitude in right turns and/or losing altitude in left turns.Failure to maintain constant bank angle.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook27
28 Steep Turns - Common Errors (continued) Disorientation.Attempting to perform the maneuver by instrument reference rather than visual reference.Failure to scan for other traffic during the maneuver.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook28
29 Power Off Stall Recovery 1. Reduce Angle of Attack RecognitionPower Off Stall Recovery 1. Reduce Angle of Attack2. Add Power3. Keep Wings Level4. Use adequate RudderRead the Slide and discuss29
30 Stall Recognition Power On Stall Recovery 1. Reduce Angle of Attack 2. Keep Wings Level3. Use adequate RudderRead the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook30
31 FAA-H-8083-3A Airplane Flying Handbook Stabilized ApproachAirspeed control- ElevatorRate/ angle of descent controlled by PowerEmphasize that a stabilized approach consists of : airplane properly configured (gear, flaps, and power) , Maintaining extended centerline on final and desired approach speed for the weight* ( 3-5 degree glide path to a predetermined touchdown point ( within the first 1/3 of the runway).FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook31
32 Gross Wt Compensation 80 kts @ Gross Divide actual wt by gross wt to get % of gross (2000 by 2500 = 80%)Subtract % of gross from 100% (100%-80%= 20%)Divide % by 2 (20% by 2 = 10%)Reduce your app spd by this % ( 10% of 80 kts = 8 kts. 80 – 8 = 72 kts)Actual Speed for Approach…..72 kts32
33 Landing - Common Errors Failure to allow enough room on final to set up the approach, necessitating an overly steep approach and high sink rate.Un-stabilized approach.Undue delay in initiating glide path corrections.Too low an airspeed on final resulting in inability to flare properly and landing hard.Read the Slide and DiscussEmphasize the need for total airspeed control.FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook33
34 Landing - Common Errors (continued) Too high an airspeed resulting in floating on round out.Prematurely reducing power to idle on round out resulting in hard landing.Touchdown with excessive airspeed.Excessive and/or unnecessary braking after touchdown.Failure to maintain directional control.Read the Slide and DiscussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook34
35 Crosswind LandingsThis is one of the most common areas of difficulty for most pilotsThere are two basic techniques, the crabbing method and wing low or “side slip” method. Really the crabbing method is more suited to large aircraft. They have a lot more mass and when the rudder is used to take the crab out it takes more time for the aircraft to start moving off centerline. Whereas with a light aircraft it will move off the centerline almost immediately. The wing low or sideslip method is almost always a better technique.As the Speed decreases so does the effectiveness of the flight controls. Many pilots also fail to continue to add more aileron control into the wind as the aircraft slows down on roll out. This can contribute to a loss of directional control.Do you use the wind sock? Think about partial or no flap landing. Know your crosswind performance / limitations.35
36 Crosswind Landings Common Errors Attempting to land in crosswinds that exceed the airplane’s maximum demonstrated crosswind component.Inadequate compensation for wind drift on the turn from base leg to final approach, resulting in undershooting or overshooting.Inadequate compensation for wind drift on final approach.Unstabilized approach.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook36
37 Crosswind Landings Common Errors (continued) Failure to compensate for increased drag during sideslip resulting in excessive sink rate and/or too low an airspeed.Touchdown while drifting.Excessive airspeed on touchdown.Failure to apply appropriate flight control inputs during rollout.Read the Slide and discussBe sure and emphasize as the aircraft slows down you should continue to add more aileron into the wind so that at the end of the roll out, you have full aileron deflection into the wind.FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook37
38 Crosswind Landings Common Errors (continued) Failure to maintain direction control on rollout.Excessive braking.Read the Slide and discussFAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook38
39 Go Around From Rejected Landing Read the Slide and discussYOU NEED TO MAINTAIN PROFICIENCY IN THIS MANEUVER. If it gets outside of your abilities or the capabilities of the airplane, then GO AROUND!FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook39
40 Go Around Common Errors Pitch attitude increased excessively resulting in a stallApplying only partial powerFailure to reconfigure the aircraft (gear and Flaps) for climbRetracting the flaps too quicklyElevator trim (excessive forward pressures)Read the Slide and discussDon’t you dare do this too late!!! Make a decision to go around! In a retractable gear airplane, leave the gear alone if you do not need the climb performance. Too many people have executed a go around only to follow it up with a gear-up landing.FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook40
41 FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 Module #6, Core Topic #11Questions?Comments?Ideas?Quiz time ~Sum up, add your comments and experiences, answer questions
42 1. If you realize you are low on the approach, you should a. Initiate a 360 degree and enter the pattern at the appropriate altitudeb. Retract flapsc. Immediately apply powerd. Increase the pitch attitude2. If you bounce your landing, you shoulda. Force the airplane onto the groundb. Go- Aroundc. Add power and re-landd. Let the instructor land the airplane
43 4. What is a stabilized approach? 3. True or False; The takeoff or landing speed is generally a function of the stall speed or minimum flying speed.4. What is a stabilized approach?5. During takeoff or landing a cross wind is only a factor when it is in excess of ten miles per hour or gusty.True or false?Answers followSelf correct, each attendee must get a total of 70% for total combined Module quiz
44 1. If you realize you are low on the approach, you should a. Initiate a 360 degree and enter the pattern at the appropriate altitudeb. Retract flapsc. Immediately apply powerd. Increase the pitch attitudec. Apply power - Airplane Flying Handbook2. If you bounce your landing, you shoulda. Force the airplane onto the groundb. Go- Aroundc. Add power and re-landd. Let the instructor land the airplaneb. go-around - Airplane Flying Handbook
45 3. True or False; The takeoff or landing speed is generally a function of the stall speed or minimum flying speed.True - Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.4. What is a stabilized approach?An approach in which the pilot establishes and maintains a constant angle glide path towards a predetermined point on the landing runway. Airplane flying handbook p. 8-7
46 5. During takeoff or landing a cross wind is only a factor when it is in excess of ten miles per hour or gusty.True or false?False, in fact FAASTeam statistics demonstrate that a cross wind of significantly less than ten miles per hour is frequently a contributing factor to the cause of mishaps.
47 FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 Take a Break!Break for 10 minutes, if longer it can not count as part of the Core Topic time.
48 Core Topic 12 Aircraft Operational Limitations ? Why do we care? Short discussion
49 Nice place, seemed a little short when we landed! Continue
50 1850’, grass, it’s hot, and the tanks are pretty full …. Continue
51 ... only three of us and there’s a river beyond the trees .... Continue
52 I think we’ll be ok to try a takeoff ………. Continue
53 We’re not accelerating very well … I can’t stop now! …. Continue
54 They didn’t consider the potential problems for takeoff before they landed there. They didn’t consider options when they realized the takeoff might be difficult.They didn’t confirm that the airplane’s performance capabilities would allow a safe takeoff, or not.They didn’t plan for a point at which to abort the takeoff if acceleration was too slow.The aircraft owner, his teenage son, and a CFI did all drown in the wreckage.Continue
55 Take your pick, each one defines an end to options: limitation - restriction: a principle that limits the extent of something;limitation - the quality of being limited or restricted;limitation - limit: the greatest amount of something that is possible or allowed;limitation - (law) a time period after which suits cannot be brought;limitation - an act of limiting or restricting (as by regulation)Read and continue
56 What do you want your students to do? Will they know what options exist?Is “I think we can” good enough for you?Where is the performance information a pilot needs in order to be sure?What warnings are thereto tell us we’re at or neara limit?Read and continue
57 What do you want your students to do? Make decisions based on knowledge and facts.Will they know what options exist?Give them problems to solve during their training.Is “I think we can” good enough for you?Give them the opportunity to evaluate conditions.Where is the performance information a pilot needs in order to be sure?Show them the Pilot Operation Handbook and performance charts, insist that they are used.What warnings are there to tell us we’re at or near a limit?Teach them to use situational awareness in all aspects of preflight planning and in flightDiscussion
58 Yes, take the time ….…..get all that stuff out, review it yourself and then share your knowledge.Continue
59 Emphasize the importance of aircraft performance planning! Demonstrate the aircraft’s limited performance at reduced power to simulate the effect of temperature and pressure altitude.Read and discuss
60 Full can be a beautiful thing! But, when it comes to loading an airplane ……..ContinueFull can exceed the weight and/or CG limits!
61 Weight can be a limitation. depending on runway length, Weight can be a limitation depending on runway length, temperature, runway condition, and density altitude.What to do?Less fuel? Maybe, what’s the weather doing?Fewer passengers? Could you leave someone behind?Different runway? Perhaps the opposite direction?Wait until the temperature decreases? Can you spare the time it takes to stay alive?Discussion
62 Does the weight of whatever you put into the aircraft remain constant? What happens when you bank for a turn ……….and maintain your altitude ………………………then increase your bank angle to 45 ….. 60 degrees ?In which Category was your airplane Certificated, how many Gs are legal?100 pounds at 3 Gs becomes 300 pounds ……. Is that a limitation? How about bags and cargo?Discussion
63 After you have convinced your students that you can’t always fill every space in the aircraft, fill the tanks, and not exceed several of its operational limitations …………Remind them that the Certificated limits are based on the performance of a new aircraft, at the exact weight, at a density altitude equal to sea level and standard temperature, demonstrated by …...Discuss
64 Make sure your students know that the tables and calculations available in the Pilots Operating Handbook are based on pressure/density altitude.The International Standards Association (ISA) has defined a Standard Atmosphere as:Sea Level Barometric Pressure of inches of Mercury (in. Hg)Sea Level Temperature of 15° Celsius (15° C or 59° F)Relative humidity of 0 %Standard temperature lapse rate of 2° C per 1000 feet altitudeStandard pressure lapse rate of 1 in. Hg per 1000 feet altitudeA standard decrease in density as altitude increasesRead through discuss as necessary
65 nonstandard temperature. Pressure Altitude adjusts for pressure difference between your air and standard atmosphere. The question is “What would your altimeter read if you were in a standard atmosphere at your current actual altitude?” This altitude is called PRESSURE ALTITUDE.Density Altitude usesPressure Altitude as abasis, and adds in acorrection factor fornonstandard temperature.Read and continue
66 Even when you take care of all the other details, if you haven’t considered C of G ….. You may become aTESTPILOT!Discuss the possibility of unsatisfactory or unsafe handling characteristics
67 What should you expect if … the airplane is tail heavy, even when you are within CG limits or,the airplane is nose heavy;Flight Control effectiveness?During takeoff?During Landing?During a Stall?During Spin Recovery?Encourage discussion
68 Any limitations to consider before Landing? Continue
69 Pilot skills, aircraft limits, and the runway? Continue
70 A little wind, a little too fast, no margin for error! Does this happen? Yes, all the time. Combination of an airplane’s limitations not recognized by a pilot with limited experience.
71 Again,Teach your students to consider options prior to takeoff, operations during flight, and landing.Teach them to consider the limitations of the aircraft and their own limitations based on their knowledge and experience.Stress the importance of having a thought process for all aspects of aviation
72 The airplane couldn’t do it ……… do you remember why? Continue
73 The aircraft’s performance capability, the airspeed, and altitude from which the maneuver was initiated combined did not allow the pilot torecover from themaneuver.Same thing here,physics willinterruptflight!Other examples you can think of?
74 Questions? Comments? Ideas? Quiz time ~ Module #6, Core Topic #12Useful sources for more information:Advisory Circular – AC-61-67CAircraft Weight and Balance Handbook – FAA-H aQuestions?Comments?Ideas?Quiz time ~Sum it up by all means add your own thoughts and experiences and answer questions
75 6. Baggage weighing 90 pounds is placed in a normal category airplane’s baggage compartment which is placarded at 100 pounds. If this airplane is subjected to a positive load factor of 3.5 Gs, the total load of the baggage would be ………a. 315 pounds and would be excessive.b. 315 pounds and would not be excessive.c. 350 pounds and would be excessive.d. 350 pounds and would not be excessive.
76 7. The performance tables of an aircraft for takeoff and climb are based on a. Pressure/density altitudeb. Cabin altitudec. True altituded. Indicated altitude8. Aircraft designed to withstand load limits up to 4.4G’s are labeled “normal or utility category aircraft??
77 10. What is definition of the Empty weight? 9. What is the definition of Maximum weight?10. What is definition of the Empty weight?Answers follow …………………Check that everyone is finished. Tell them to self correct to 100% they must have at least 70% before self correcting
78 6. Baggage weighing 90 pounds is placed in a normal category airplane’s baggage compartment which is placarded at 100 pounds. If this airplane is subjected to a positive load factor of 3.5 Gs, the total load of the baggage would be ………a. 315 pounds and would be excessive.b. 315 pounds and would not be excessive.c. 350 pounds and would be excessive.d. 350 pounds and would not be excessive.b. 315 pounds, not excessive Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
79 7. The performance tables of an aircraft for takeoff and climb are based on a. Pressure/density altitudeb. Cabin altitudec. True altituded. Indicated altitudePressure/density altitude - Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.8. Aircraft designed to withstand load limits up to 4.4G’s are labeled “normal or utility category aircraft??“Utility” Category aircraft - Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.
80 9. What is the definition of Maximum weight? The maximum authorized weight of the aircraft and all of its equipment as specified in the Type Certificate Data Sheets (TCDS) for the aircraft.Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook, p. 1-110. What is definition of the Empty weight?The weight of the airframe, engines, and all items of operating equipment that are permanently installed in the aircraft.Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook.
81 Be sure to have your attendance record validated! This CompletesCFI Workshop Module #6Be sure to have your attendance record validated!Thank you for supporting CFI Workshops. Everyone travel safely and see you at CFI Workshop 7