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Presented to: Instructors and Pilot Examiners By: The FAASTeam Date: January 1 to March 31, 2010 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented to: Instructors and Pilot Examiners By: The FAASTeam Date: January 1 to March 31, 2010 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented to: Instructors and Pilot Examiners By: The FAASTeam Date: January 1 to March 31, 2010 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 Module 6, Core Topics 11 and 12: - Takeoff, Landings, and Low Altitude Maneuvering - Aircraft Operational Limitations

2 2 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 This presentation is approved as a means to provide CFIs with orientation for FAASTeam Approach and Landing Clinics. Additional training to compliment this presentation will be available for CFIs who will conduct a Takeoff and Landing Clinic.

3 3 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Module #6 – Core Topic #11, Takeoff, Landing, and Low Altitude Maneuvering ~ Takeoff, approach and landing procedures Aircraft control in various Areas of Operation Identify strengths and weaknesses Let’s take a look as some statistics Encourage Safety through Awareness Are all of your students registered at FAASafety.gov?

4 4 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Clinic Objectives Reduce the Risk of Accidents due to Improper Takeoffs, Landings and Loss of Aircraft Control. –Evaluating Takeoff and Landing Procedures and Techniques. –Encourage you to maintain your Takeoff and Landing skills through a Proficiency Program. (WINGS) –Review recent General Aviation accident statistics for Takeoff and Landings to Increase Awareness and Safety.

5 5 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 The 2007 AOPA Nall report showed:  16.4% Of General Aviation Accidents occurred during the Take-Off phase of Flight. Why Focus on Take-offs, Landings and Aircraft Control?

6 6 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Why Focus on Take-off and Landings? The 2007 AOPA Nall report showed:  40.3% Of accidents occurred during the Landing phase of Flight.

7 7 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Go arounds gone bad

8 8 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Go arounds gone bad.

9 9 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 “What Can this Clinic Do for Me?”  Offer a Proficiency Evaluation.  Improve Takeoff, Landing and Aircraft Control Skills  Reinforce Good Habits.  Encourage Involvement in the WINGS Program

10 10 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 “What Will this Clinic Do for Me?”  Help Identify Your Piloting Strengths and Weaknesses.  Earn Credit Towards The Pilot Proficiency Program (WINGS).

11 11 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Let’s Get Busy! Photo © Danny Fritsche

12 12 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Centerline Control Always keep the Aircraft on the Centerline of the Taxiway and Runway.

13 13 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Normal Takeoff Review

14 14 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Normal Take Off - Common Errors  Failure to adequately clear the area prior to taxiing into position on the active runway.  Abrupt use of the throttle.  Failure to check engine instruments for signs of malfunction after applying takeoff power.  Failure to anticipate the airplane’s left turning tendency on initial acceleration. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

15 15 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Normal Take Off - Common Errors (continued)  Overcorrecting for left turning tendency.  Relying solely on the airspeed indicator rather than developed feel for indications of speed and airplane controllability during acceleration and lift-off.  Failure to attain proper lift-off attitude.  Inadequate compensation for torque/P-factor during initial climb resulting in a sideslip.  Over-control of elevators during initial climb out. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

16 16 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Crosswind Takeoff Review

17 17 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Application of Aileron

18 18 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 X-Wind Take Off - Common Errors  Failure to adequately clear the area prior to taxiing onto the active runway.  Using less than full aileron pressure into the wind initially on the takeoff roll.  Mechanical use of aileron control rather than sensing the need for varying aileron control input through feel for the airplane. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

19 19 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 X-Wind Take Off - Common Errors (Continued)  Premature lift-off resulting in side-skipping.  Excessive aileron input in the latter stage of the takeoff roll resulting in a steep bank into the wind at lift-off.  Inadequate drift correction after lift-off. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

20 20 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Slow Flight or MCA

21 21 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 What’s going on with drag vs airspeed?

22 22 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Definition FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

23 23 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Slow Flight - Common Errors  Failure to adequately clear the area.  Inadequate back-elevator pressure as power is reduced, resulting in altitude loss.  Excessive back-elevator pressure as power is reduced, resulting in a climb, followed by a rapid reduction in airspeed and “mushing.”  Inadequate compensation for adverse yaw during turns. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

24 24 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Slow Flight - Common Errors (Continued)  Fixation on the airspeed indicator.  Failure to anticipate changes in lift as flaps are extended or retracted.  Inadequate power management.  Inability to adequately divide attention between airplane control and orientation. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

25 25 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Steep Turns FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

26 26 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Steep Turns - Common Errors  Failure to adequately clear the area.  Excessive pitch change during entry or recovery.  Attempts to start recovery prematurely.  Failure to stop the turn on a precise heading.  Excessive rudder during recovery, resulting in skidding. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

27 27 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Steep Turns - Common Errors (continued)  Inadequate power management.  Inadequate airspeed control.  Poor coordination.  Gaining altitude in right turns and/or losing altitude in left turns.  Failure to maintain constant bank angle. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

28 28 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Steep Turns - Common Errors (continued)  Disorientation.  Attempting to perform the maneuver by instrument reference rather than visual reference.  Failure to scan for other traffic during the maneuver. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

29 29 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Power Off Stall Recovery 1. Reduce Angle of Attack 2. Add Power 3. Keep Wings Level 4. Use adequate Rudder

30 30 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Power On Stall Recovery 1. Reduce Angle of Attack 2. Keep Wings Level 3. Use adequate Rudder FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

31 31 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Stabilized Approach FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

32 32 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Gross Wt Compensation 80 Gross Divide actual wt by gross wt to get % of gross (2000 by 2500 = 80%) Subtract % of gross from 100% (100%-80%= 20%) Divide % by 2 (20% by 2 = 10%) Reduce your app spd by this % ( 10% of 80 kts = 8 kts. 80 – 8 = 72 kts) Actual Speed for Approach….. 72 kts

33 33 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Landing - Common Errors  Failure to allow enough room on final to set up the approach, necessitating an overly steep approach and high sink rate.  Un-stabilized approach.  Undue delay in initiating glide path corrections.  Too low an airspeed on final resulting in inability to flare properly and landing hard. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

34 34 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Landing - Common Errors (continued)  Too high an airspeed resulting in floating on round out.  Prematurely reducing power to idle on round out resulting in hard landing.  Touchdown with excessive airspeed.  Excessive and/or unnecessary braking after touchdown.  Failure to maintain directional control. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

35 35 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Crosswind Landings

36 36 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Crosswind Landings Common Errors  Attempting to land in crosswinds that exceed the airplane’s maximum demonstrated crosswind component.  Inadequate compensation for wind drift on the turn from base leg to final approach, resulting in undershooting or overshooting.  Inadequate compensation for wind drift on final approach.  Unstabilized approach. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

37 37 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010  Failure to compensate for increased drag during sideslip resulting in excessive sink rate and/or too low an airspeed.  Touchdown while drifting.  Excessive airspeed on touchdown.  Failure to apply appropriate flight control inputs during rollout. Crosswind Landings Common Errors (continued) FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

38 38 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Crosswind Landings Common Errors (continued)  Failure to maintain direction control on rollout.  Excessive braking. FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

39 39 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Go Around From Rejected Landing FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

40 40 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Go Around Common Errors  Pitch attitude increased excessively resulting in a stall  Applying only partial power  Failure to reconfigure the aircraft (gear and Flaps) for climb  Retracting the flaps too quickly  Elevator trim (excessive forward pressures) FAA-H A Airplane Flying Handbook

41 41 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 Module #6, Core Topic #11 Questions? Comments? Ideas? Quiz time ~

42 42 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, If you realize you are low on the approach, you should a. Initiate a 360 degree and enter the pattern at the appropriate altitude b. Retract flaps c. Immediately apply power d. Increase the pitch attitude 2. If you bounce your landing, you should a. Force the airplane onto the ground b. Go- Around c. Add power and re-land d. Let the instructor land the airplane

43 43 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, True or False; The takeoff or landing speed is generally a function of the stall speed or minimum flying speed. 4. What is a stabilized approach? 5. During takeoff or landing a cross wind is only a factor when it is in excess of ten miles per hour or gusty. True or false? Answers follow

44 44 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, If you realize you are low on the approach, you should a. Initiate a 360 degree and enter the pattern at the appropriate altitude b. Retract flaps c. Immediately apply power d. Increase the pitch attitude c. Apply power - Airplane Flying Handbook 2. If you bounce your landing, you should a. Force the airplane onto the ground b. Go- Around c. Add power and re-land d. Let the instructor land the airplane b. go-around - Airplane Flying Handbook

45 45 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, True or False; The takeoff or landing speed is generally a function of the stall speed or minimum flying speed. True - Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge. 4. What is a stabilized approach? An approach in which the pilot establishes and maintains a constant angle glide path towards a predetermined point on the landing runway. Airplane flying handbook p. 8-7

46 46 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, During takeoff or landing a cross wind is only a factor when it is in excess of ten miles per hour or gusty. True or false? False, in fact FAASTeam statistics demonstrate that a cross wind of significantly less than ten miles per hour is frequently a contributing factor to the cause of mishaps.

47 47 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 Take a Break!

48 48 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Core Topic 12 Aircraft Operational Limitations ?

49 49 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Nice place, seemed a little short when we landed!

50 50 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, ’, grass, it’s hot, and the tanks are pretty full ….

51 51 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, only three of us and there’s a river beyond the trees....

52 52 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 I think we’ll be ok to try a takeoff ……….

53 53 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 We’re not accelerating very well … I can’t stop now! ….

54 54 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 They didn’t consider the potential problems for takeoff before they landed there. They didn’t consider options when they realized the takeoff might be difficult. They didn’t confirm that the airplane’s performance capabilities would allow a safe takeoff, or not. They didn’t plan for a point at which to abort the takeoff if acceleration was too slow. The aircraft owner, his teenage son, and a CFI did all drown in the wreckage.

55 55 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Take your pick, each one defines an end to options: limitation - restriction: a principle that limits the extent of something; limitation - the quality of being limited or restricted; limitation - limit: the greatest amount of something that is possible or allowed; limitation - (law) a time period after which suits cannot be brought; limitation - an act of limiting or restricting (as by regulation)

56 56 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 What do you want your students to do? Will they know what options exist? Is “I think we can” good enough for you? Where is the performance information a pilot needs in order to be sure? What warnings are there to tell us we’re at or near a limit?

57 57 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 What do you want your students to do? Make decisions based on knowledge and facts. Will they know what options exist? Give them problems to solve during their training. Is “I think we can” good enough for you? Give them the opportunity to evaluate conditions. Where is the performance information a pilot needs in order to be sure? Show them the Pilot Operation Handbook and performance charts, insist that they are used. What warnings are there to tell us we’re at or near a limit? Teach them to use situational awareness in all aspects of preflight planning and in flight

58 58 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Yes, take the time …. …..get all that stuff out, review it yourself and then share your knowledge.

59 59 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Emphasize the importance of aircraft performance planning! Demonstrate the aircraft’s limited performance at reduced power to simulate the effect of temperature and pressure altitude.

60 60 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Full can be a beautiful thing! Full can exceed the weight and/or CG limits! But, when it comes to loading an airplane ……..

61 61 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Weight can be a limitation depending on runway length, temperature, runway condition, and density altitude. What to do? Less fuel? Maybe, what’s the weather doing? Fewer passengers? Could you leave someone behind? Different runway? Perhaps the opposite direction? Wait until the temperature decreases? Can you spare the time it takes to stay alive?

62 62 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Does the weight of whatever you put into the aircraft remain constant? What happens when you bank for a turn ………. and maintain your altitude ……………………… then increase your bank angle to 45 ….. 60 degrees ? In which Category was your airplane Certificated, how many Gs are legal? 100 pounds at 3 Gs becomes 300 pounds ……. Is that a limitation? How about bags and cargo?

63 63 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 After you have convinced your students that you can’t always fill every space in the aircraft, fill the tanks, and not exceed several of its operational limitations ………… Remind them that the Certificated limits are based on the performance of a new aircraft, at the exact weight, at a density altitude equal to sea level and standard temperature, demonstrated by …...

64 64 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Make sure your students know that the tables and calculations available in the Pilots Operating Handbook are based on pressure/density altitude. The International Standards Association (ISA) has defined a Standard Atmosphere as: Sea Level Barometric Pressure of inches of Mercury (in. Hg) Sea Level Temperature of 15° Celsius (15° C or 59° F) Relative humidity of 0 % Standard temperature lapse rate of 2° C per 1000 feet altitude Standard pressure lapse rate of 1 in. Hg per 1000 feet altitude A standard decrease in density as altitude increases

65 65 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Pressure Altitude adjusts for pressure difference between your air and standard atmosphere. The question is “What would your altimeter read if you were in a standard atmosphere at your current actual altitude?” This altitude is called PRESSURE ALTITUDE. Density Altitude uses Pressure Altitude as a basis, and adds in a correction factor for nonstandard temperature.

66 66 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Even when you take care of all the other details, if you haven’t considered C of G ….. You may become a TEST PILOT!

67 67 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 What should you expect if … the airplane is tail heavy, even when you are within CG limits or, the airplane is nose heavy; Flight Control effectiveness? During takeoff? During Landing? During a Stall? During Spin Recovery?

68 68 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Any limitations to consider before Landing?

69 69 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Pilot skills, aircraft limits, and the runway?

70 70 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 A little wind, a little too fast, no margin for error!

71 71 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Again, Teach your students to consider options prior to takeoff, operations during flight, and landing. Teach them to consider the limitations of the aircraft and their own limitations based on their knowledge and experience.

72 72 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 The airplane couldn’t do it ……… do you remember why?

73 73 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 The aircraft’s performance capability, the airspeed, and altitude from which the maneuver was initiated combined did not allow the pilot to recover from the maneuver. Same thing here, physics will interrupt flight!

74 74 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 Module #6, Core Topic #12 Useful sources for more information: Advisory Circular – AC-61-67C Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook – FAA-H a Questions? Comments? Ideas? Quiz time ~

75 75 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, Baggage weighing 90 pounds is placed in a normal category airplane’s baggage compartment which is placarded at 100 pounds. If this airplane is subjected to a positive load factor of 3.5 Gs, the total load of the baggage would be ……… a. 315 pounds and would be excessive. b. 315 pounds and would not be excessive. c. 350 pounds and would be excessive. d. 350 pounds and would not be excessive.

76 76 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, The performance tables of an aircraft for takeoff and climb are based on a. Pressure/density altitude b. Cabin altitude c. True altitude d. Indicated altitude 8. Aircraft designed to withstand load limits up to 4.4G’s are labeled “normal or utility category aircraft??

77 77 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, What is the definition of Maximum weight? 10. What is definition of the Empty weight? Answers follow …………………

78 78 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, Baggage weighing 90 pounds is placed in a normal category airplane’s baggage compartment which is placarded at 100 pounds. If this airplane is subjected to a positive load factor of 3.5 Gs, the total load of the baggage would be ……… a. 315 pounds and would be excessive. b. 315 pounds and would not be excessive. c. 350 pounds and would be excessive. d. 350 pounds and would not be excessive. b. 315 pounds, not excessive Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

79 79 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, The performance tables of an aircraft for takeoff and climb are based on a. Pressure/density altitude b. Cabin altitude c. True altitude d. Indicated altitude a.Pressure/density altitude - Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge. 8. Aircraft designed to withstand load limits up to 4.4G’s are labeled “normal or utility category aircraft?? “Utility” Category aircraft - Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.

80 80 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, What is the definition of Maximum weight? The maximum authorized weight of the aircraft and all of its equipment as specified in the Type Certificate Data Sheets (TCDS) for the aircraft. Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook, p What is definition of the Empty weight? The weight of the airframe, engines, and all items of operating equipment that are permanently installed in the aircraft. Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook.

81 81 Federal Aviation Administration FAASTeam CFI Workshop #6 January 1 to March 31, 2010 This Completes CFI Workshop Module #6 Be sure to have your attendance record validated!


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