4.Apicomplexans -Sporozoa Movement – no movement, it’s a spore Ex -Plasmodium Complex lifecycle –
Malaria Currently there are an estimated 500,000,000 infected persons, with 1-2 million dying annually. There are four types of Plasmodium All of these are transmitted to human hosts solely by way of Anophele mosquito vectors. Plasmodium is one of the oldest known parasites; its long history suggests a long, adaptive relationship with the human host. Symptoms of the disease may go unnoticed ; clinical signs include fever, chills, weakness, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, Untreated malaria may result in death there are antimalaria drugs
Poverty and Malaria
DDT- pesticide discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds a large public outcry that eventually led to DDT being banned in the US in 1972 DDT was subsequently banned for agricultural use worldwide under the Stockholm Convention, but its limited use in disease vector control continues to this day and remains controversial
5. Euglenophyta was in the Algae Kingdom Mixotrophs – heterotroph and autotroph Has a flagella pellicle Ex – Euglena
6. Dinoflagellates ( pyrrophyta) 2 flagella Bioluminescence Ex – red tide Two flagella make them spin as they move through the water Dinoflagellate blooms are the cause of toxic “red tides”
Chromista - Plantlike Protists Algae Eukaryote Autotrophs No true roots stems or leaves, lack an internal system of tubes which plants have to move material around.
The Kingdom Protista is a mess Algae was classified into 6 divisions Unicellular algae – Chrysophyta, Pyrrophyta, Euglenophyta Multicellular algae – Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta 2 moved to Protista and 1 moved closer to plants and 1 Fungi moved in
Classification – is based on there pigment and how they store there food. All algae have chlorophyll A some contain chlorophyl b,c, and d. Photoautotrophs Cellulose wall Algae do not reproduce like plants and they are aquatic.
Structure of Algae The structure is diverse multicellular – has the body called a thallus colonial – group of cells, divides labor filamentous – row of cells, branching unicellular –float near surface, plankton
1.Phaeophyta ( phaeos = brown ) multicellular Ex – kelp -shallow Ex – fucus - tidal seaweed The body is called a thallus; holdfast, stipe, blade they do not have roots, stems or a leaf like plants
Fig. 28-15 Blade Stipe Holdfast
2. Rhodophyta ( rhodo=red ) Nori. The red alga Porphyra is the source of a traditional Japanese food. The seaweed is grown on nets in shallow coastal waters.
3. Chrysophyta Unicellular colonial Ex- golden brown algae
4. Bacillariophyta Ex – Diatom unicellular algae with a unique two- part, glass-like wall of hydrated silica
5. Oomycota ( large egg fungi) Unicellular have a flagella and cellulose cell wall Ex- White rust Downy mildew 1870 Ich - water mold
Plant Kingdom ? 440 million yrs ago 4. Chlorophyta ( green algae ) Possibly derived from the same ancestor to plants A photosynthetic autotroph.. Ex – Volvox Ex- Spyrogyra
Fig. 28-21 (a) Ulva, or sea lettuce (b) Caulerpa, an intertidal chloro- phyte 2 cm
Lichen Algae live symbiotically with Fungi Found on bark, logs and rocks
Algae Hero or Pond Scum ?
Hero This is a intricate cycle occurring in the oceans, where there is a balance between photosynthetic organism (algae) producing biomass (from carbon dioxide) and oxygen Luckily, some of the algae biomass that took carbon dioxide from the environment and "fixed" it into organic molecules sinks out of the system and gets buried on the ocean floor. This buried organic carbon - when buried in high quantities - eventually becomes oil over millions of years.
Pond Scum How about - dead zones. Nutrient run off from rivers causes algal blooms. Nitrogen and phosphorous work to fertilize the plant on land - specifically crops,they also work to fertilize algae once the excess reaches lakes and oceans. When the algae bloom as a result of the nutrient addition, they are quickly eaten by protist, zooplankton and bacteria, that turns all that carbon that is now in the form on algae biomass back to carbon dioxide. the heterotrophs use up all the oxygen produced by the photosynthesis in the bloom and then some.