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Kingdom Protista Eukaryote Heterotroph Autotroph Most are unicellular but all do not have tissue or organs.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Protista Eukaryote Heterotroph Autotroph Most are unicellular but all do not have tissue or organs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Protista Eukaryote Heterotroph Autotroph Most are unicellular but all do not have tissue or organs

2 Protozoans 4 – 6 groups classified by movement by pseudopodia, cilia, or flagella

3 Slime molds move in the amoeboid stage then form mold like structure

4 They eat bacteria, plankton and other protozoans They live in lakes ponds and streams, some live in bodies of animals as parasites

5 Habitat Moist damp areas Plankton an organism that drifts and swim weakly on the surface

6 Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution There is now considerable evidence that much protist diversity has its origins in endosymbiosis Hypothesis that a cell lives with a host cell

7 Mitochondria evolved by endosymbiosis of an aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote Plastids evolved by endosymbiosis of a photosynthetic prokaryote -cyanobacterium

8 This lead to organelles

9 1. Sarcodinia – sarcode means jelly Movement – pseudopodia – false foot Ex- Radiolaria- shell like 

10 Ex- Entamoeba- parasite causes dysentery Via food, water, utensils Fever, chills

11 Ex – Ameba proteus - fresh water, harmless  Ameboid movement – endoplasm pushes outward, followed by ectoplasm then pseudopods retract

12 Old terms … Cytoplasmic streaming – contents of the cell are slightly moving Phagocytosis – endocytosis of food Binary fission – asexual reproduction

13 2. Ciliphora – complex cell, common, pellicle is a stiff protective membrane movement –cilia row ex – Stentor

14 ex- Paramecium oral groove ingests food, micronucleus – controls reproduction, macronucleus – controls metabolism

15 3. Zoomastigina or flagellates Movement – flagella – whip like Ex – Giardia – fatigue, cramps

16 Trypanosome – African Sleeping Sickness tsetse fly – host invades the brain

17 4.Apicomplexans -Sporozoa Movement – no movement, it’s a spore Ex -Plasmodium Complex lifecycle –

18 Malaria Currently there are an estimated 500,000,000 infected persons, with 1-2 million dying annually. There are four types of Plasmodium All of these are transmitted to human hosts solely by way of Anophele mosquito vectors. Plasmodium is one of the oldest known parasites; its long history suggests a long, adaptive relationship with the human host. Symptoms of the disease may go unnoticed ; clinical signs include fever, chills, weakness, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, Untreated malaria may result in death there are antimalaria drugs

19 Poverty and Malaria

20 DDT- pesticide discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds a large public outcry that eventually led to DDT being banned in the US in 1972 DDT was subsequently banned for agricultural use worldwide under the Stockholm Convention, but its limited use in disease vector control continues to this day and remains controversial

21 5. Euglenophyta was in the Algae Kingdom Mixotrophs – heterotroph and autotroph Has a flagella pellicle Ex – Euglena

22 Fig. 28-07 Long flagellum Eyespot Short flagellum Contractile vacuole Nucleus Chloroplast Plasma membrane Light detector Pellicle Euglena (LM) 5 µm

23 6. Dinoflagellates ( pyrrophyta) 2 flagella Bioluminescence Ex – red tide Two flagella make them spin as they move through the water Dinoflagellate blooms are the cause of toxic “red tides”

24 Chromista - Plantlike Protists Algae Eukaryote Autotrophs No true roots stems or leaves, lack an internal system of tubes which plants have to move material around.

25 The Kingdom Protista is a mess Algae was classified into 6 divisions Unicellular algae – Chrysophyta, Pyrrophyta, Euglenophyta Multicellular algae – Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta 2 moved to Protista and 1 moved closer to plants and 1 Fungi moved in

26 Classification – is based on there pigment and how they store there food. All algae have chlorophyll A some contain chlorophyl b,c, and d. Photoautotrophs Cellulose wall Algae do not reproduce like plants and they are aquatic.

27 Structure of Algae The structure is diverse multicellular – has the body called a thallus colonial – group of cells, divides labor filamentous – row of cells, branching unicellular –float near surface, plankton

28 1.Phaeophyta ( phaeos = brown ) multicellular Ex – kelp -shallow Ex – fucus - tidal seaweed The body is called a thallus; holdfast, stipe, blade they do not have roots, stems or a leaf like plants

29 Fig. 28-15 Blade Stipe Holdfast

30 2. Rhodophyta ( rhodo=red ) Nori. The red alga Porphyra is the source of a traditional Japanese food. The seaweed is grown on nets in shallow coastal waters.

31 3. Chrysophyta Unicellular colonial Ex- golden brown algae

32 4. Bacillariophyta Ex – Diatom unicellular algae with a unique two- part, glass-like wall of hydrated silica

33 5. Oomycota ( large egg fungi) Unicellular have a flagella and cellulose cell wall Ex- White rust Downy mildew 1870 Ich - water mold

34 Fig. 28-17-3 Germ tube Cyst Hyphae ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zoospore (2n) Zoosporangium (2n) Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Key Oogonium Egg nucleus (n) Antheridial hypha with sperm nuclei (n) MEIOSIS Zygote germination SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygotes (oospores) (2n) FERTILIZATION

35 Plant Kingdom ? 440 million yrs ago 4. Chlorophyta ( green algae ) Possibly derived from the same ancestor to plants A photosynthetic autotroph.. Ex – Volvox Ex- Spyrogyra 

36 Fig. 28-21 (a) Ulva, or sea lettuce (b) Caulerpa, an intertidal chloro- phyte 2 cm

37 Lichen Algae live symbiotically with Fungi Found on bark, logs and rocks

38 Algae Hero or Pond Scum ?

39 Hero This is a intricate cycle occurring in the oceans, where there is a balance between photosynthetic organism (algae) producing biomass (from carbon dioxide) and oxygen Luckily, some of the algae biomass that took carbon dioxide from the environment and "fixed" it into organic molecules sinks out of the system and gets buried on the ocean floor. This buried organic carbon - when buried in high quantities - eventually becomes oil over millions of years.

40 Pond Scum How about - dead zones. Nutrient run off from rivers causes algal blooms. Nitrogen and phosphorous work to fertilize the plant on land - specifically crops,they also work to fertilize algae once the excess reaches lakes and oceans. When the algae bloom as a result of the nutrient addition, they are quickly eaten by protist, zooplankton and bacteria, that turns all that carbon that is now in the form on algae biomass back to carbon dioxide. the heterotrophs use up all the oxygen produced by the photosynthesis in the bloom and then some.

41 Modern Importance of Algae


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