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Chapter 11 Muscles Exam 1 will cover sections 11.1-11.4.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Muscles Exam 1 will cover sections 11.1-11.4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Muscles Exam 1 will cover sections

2 Section 1 Fascicle Arrangement
Fascicles: bundles of muscle fibers in skeletal muscle fibers in each fascicle are parallel, but fascicle arrangement can vary parallel muscles- fascicles are parallel to long axis of muscle (biceps brachii), when muscle fibers contract, muscle shortens by 30 % convergent muscles- fascicles extend over a broad area & meet (converge) at the attachment site, (pectoralis muscles)

3 Pennate muscles- (feather) fascicles form a shared angle w/ tendon
contracted muscle doesn’t move tendon as far as parallel muscles-fibers angle contain more muscle fibers than parallel muscle, so they produce more tension Circular muscles- (sphincter) arranged around openings when contracted, diameter decreases

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5 11.2 Classes of Levers Nature and site of muscle connection determine force, speed, and range of motion lever (bone) moves when the applied force (AF) is great enough to overcome the load (L) or resistance (R) that would prevent the movement in the body, each joint acts as a fulcrum, and muscles provide the applied force the load can vary (weight of limb, object held, or entire body)

6 Classes of levers levers can change
direction of applied force distance & speed of movement effective strength of applied force Classes of levers first class: fulcrum in the middle (teeter totter) second class: load in the middle (wheel barrow), small force can move a larger weight, at the expense of speed and distance

7 third class: most common in body, force is between the load and the fulcrum, speed and distance traveled are increased at the expense of effective force (muscles must generate 6X the tension to support the load)

8 11.3 Muscle Origins & Insertions
Ends of skeletal muscle are attached to structures that limit their motion (bone, cartilage, connective tissue) origin-the place where fixed end of muscle attaches insertion-the site where the moveable end attaches to another structure action- movement produced when muscle contracts

9 Actions Actions are described
by bone or region affected (flexion of forearm) by joint involved (flexion of elbow) based on functions agonist (prime mover)- contraction responsible for producing specific movement, ex: biceps brachii muscle produces flexion of elbow antagonist- muscle whose action opposes the action of an agonist, ex: triceps brachii extends the elbow, going against the biceps brachii

10 synergist- helps a larger agonist work efficiently, may provide pull near insertion or may stabilize near origin; useful in start of motion fixator- a synergist that stabilizes origin of agonist by preventing movement at another joint

11 11.4 Descriptive terms Locational terms Origin and Insertion
regional terms are common; abdominis- abdomen, capitis- head, femoris- femur, etc (PG 342) Origin and Insertion first part of name indicates the origin, second part, the insertion ex: sternocleidomastoid originates at sternum, inserts at the clavicle (cleido)

12 Fascicle organization
Rectus: straight, parallel muscles that run along long axis of body (rectus abdominis) transverse/oblique: muscles have fibers that run at an angle to long axis of body (external obliques) Position externus/superficialis: visible at the body surface internus/profundus:deeper muscles Intrinsic: located within an organ

13 Structural Characteristics
number of tendons (biceps brachii, triceps brachii) shape- muscles named after their shape: trapezius, deltoid(triangle), rhomboid length and size: longus (long), longissimus (longest) teres (long & round), brevis (short) magnus (large), major (bigger), or maximus (biggest) minor (small), or minimus (smallest)

14 Stop! Test 1 will cover

15 11.5 Muscles of facial expression
Orbicularis oculi Sphincter muscle of eyelid O: frontal & maxillary bones I: tissue of eyelid Action: closes eye Nerve: facial / CN VII (11.6)

16 Muscles of facial expression
Zygomaticus O: zygomatic bone I: corners of mouth Action: smiling Nerve: facial / CN VII Major and Minor (11.6)

17 Muscles of mastication
Masseter O: zygomatic arch I: angle & ramus of mandible Action: elevate mandible Nerve: trigeminal nerve / CN V (foramen ovale) Masseter (11.7a)

18 Muscles of mastication
Temporalis O: temporal fossa I: coronoid process of mandible Action: elevate and retract mandible Nerve: trigeminal n. / CN V (11.7a)

19 Extrinsic tongue muscles
Styloglossus O: styloid process of temporal bone I: tongue Action: retract & elevate tongue Nerve: hypoglossal n. / CN XII Styloglossus (11.7c)

20 Extrinsic tongue muscles
Hyoglossus O: hyoid bone I: tongue Action: depresses tongue Nerve: hypoglossal n. / CN XII Hyoid bone (11.7c)

21 Muscles of neck & throat
Digastric two muscle bellies with an intermediate tendon attached to the hyoid bone O: inferior margin of mandible (anterior belly); mastoid process of temporal bone (posterior belly) I: hyoid bone Action: elevate hyoid, stabilize hyoid, depress mandible Nerve: trigeminal n. / CN V (anterior belly), facial n. / CN VII (posterior belly) Posterior belly Anterior belly (11.8a)

22 Muscles of neck & throat
Stylohyoid O: styloid process of temporal bone I: hyoid bone Action: elevate & retract hyoid, swallow Nerve: facial n. / CN VII Stylohyoid (11.7c)

23 Muscles of neck & throat
Sternohyoid O: manubrium & medial end of clavicle I: hyoid bone Action: depress hyoid Sternohyoid (11.8a)

24 Muscles of neck & throat
Pharyngeal constrictors O: mandible, pterygoid process, hyoid, laryngeal cartilages I: posterior medial raphe of pharynx Action: peristaltic contraction / swallow Superior Middle Inferior (11.8b)

25 Muscles of neck & throat
Sternocleidomastoid O: manubrium & medial clavicle I: mastoid process of temporal bone Action: head & neck flexion, rotate head contralaterally Nerve: accessory n. / CN XI (11.8a)

26 Muscles of neck & throat
Sternocleidomastoid

27 Back muscles Spinalis O: spines of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae I: spines of upper thoracic and cervical vertebrae Action: extends vertebral column (11.9d)

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29 Deep thorax muscles External & internal intercostals
O&I: inferior & superior border of ribs Action: inspiration and expiration Internal (11.10a)

30 Deep thorax muscles Diaphragm
Xiphoid process Diaphragm O: inferior internal surface of rib cage & sternum, inferior costal cartilages, lumbar vertebrae I: central tendon Action: flattens on contraction (inspiration) Nerve: phrenic nerves (11.10b)

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32 Abdominal wall muscles
Rectus abdominis O: pubic crest & symphysis I: xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7 Action: flex & rotate lumbar vertebrae, fix & depress ribs, stabilize pelvis during walking, increase intraabdominal pressure Note: 3 tendinous insertions, aponeurosis & linea alba (11.11ab)

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34 Superficial thorax muscles
Pectoralis minor O: anterior surface of ribs 3-5 I: coracoid process of scapula Action: with ribs fixed, pulls scapula anterior & inferior; with scapula fixed, pulls ribs superiorly Nerve: Medial and lateral pectoral nerves (C6-C8) (11.13a)

35 Superficial thorax muscles

36 Superificial thorax muscles
Serratus anterior O: ribs 1-8 I: vertebral border of scapula Action: hold scapula against chest wall, moves inferior angle of scapula lateral & superior (abduction, pushing, punching) Nerve: long thoracic nerve (11.13a,8.1a reversed)

37 Superificial thorax muscles
Trapezius O: occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, C7-T12 spinous processes I: acromion, spine of scapula, lateral third of clavicle Action: stabilize, elevate, adduct, depress scapula, extend head Nerve: Accessory (CNXI), C3 and C4 (11.13b)

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39 Shoulder muscles Pectoralis major
O: medial clavicle, sternum, cartilage of ribs 1-6, aponeurosis of external oblique I: greater tubercle of humerus Action: arm-flexion, medial rotation, adduction, elevation of rib cage (11.13a) Nerve: Medial and lateral pectoral nerves (C6-C8)

40 Shoulder muscles Deltoid (11.13ab)
O: lateral clavicle, acromion & spine of scapula (compare to insertion of trapezius) I: deltoid tuberosity of humerus Action: arm-abduction, flexion, extension, medial & lateral rotation Nerve: Axillary nerve(C5-C-6) (11.13ab)

41 Shoulder muscles Subscapularis O: subscapular fossa
I: lesser tubercle of humerus Action: medial rotate arm, stabilize shoulder joint Nerve: Subscapular nerves (C5-C7) (11.14d)

42 Shoulder muscles Infraspinatus O: infraspinous fossa
I: greater tubercle of humerus Action: lateral rotate humerus, stabilized shoulder joint Nerve: Suprascapular nerve (11.14b)

43 Rotator cuff muscles Act to stabilize head of humerus in glenoid cavity and prevent dislocation Supraspinatous (Suprascapular nerve) Infraspinatus (Suprascapular nerve) Subscapularis (Subscapular nerve) Teres minor (Axillary nerve)

44 Elbow muscles Triceps brachii
O: long head-infraglenoid tubercle, lat. & med. heads-posterior shaft of humerus I: olecranon process of ulna Action: extend forearm, assist adduction of arm Nerve: Radial nerve (11.14b)

45 Elbow muscles Biceps brachii (11.14c)
O: short head-coracoid process, long head-tubercle above glenoid cavity and lip of glenoid cavity (intertubercular groove) I: radial tuberosity Action: flex elbow, supinate forearm, weak arm flexor Nerve: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 & C6) (11.14c)

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47 Forearm muscles Flexor carpi (radialis & ulnaris) radialis
O: medial epicondyle of humerus, ulna I: metacarpals and carpals Action: wrist flexion, abduct & adduct hand Carpal tunnel (Median nerve) syndrome p. 184 radialis ulnaris (11.15a) Anterior view

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49 Forearm muscles Extensor carpi O: lateral epicondyle of humerus
I: base of metacarpals Action: extend, abduct, and adducts wrist Palpate forearm muscles

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51 Hip & knee muscles Quadriceps femoris
O: anterior inferior iliac spine, superior margin of acetabulum, greater trochanter, shaft of femur I: patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon Action: extend knee, flex thigh

52 Hip & knee muscles Gluteus muscles O: ilium, sacrum, coccyx
I: shaft & greater trochanter of femur Action: extend thigh (climb stairs, running), lateral & medial rotate thigh, abduct thigh, steadies pelvis

53 Hip & knee muscles Hamstrings O: ischial tuberosity, shaft of femur
I: lateral & medial condyles and shaft of tibia, head of fibula, lateral condyle femur Action: extend thigh, flex knee Makes touching toes hard

54 Leg muscles Tibialis anterior O: lateral condyle and shaft of tibia
I: tarsal and first metatarsal bones Action: dorsiflexion

55 Leg muscles Gastrocnemius O: medial & lateral condyles of femur
I: calcaneus via Achilles tendon Action: plantar flexion, flex knee


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