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Reptiles and Amphibians

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1 Reptiles and Amphibians
Animal Science I Reptiles and Amphibians

2 Objectives Compare and contrast the types of reptiles and amphibians and describe management practices involved in their care. Identify the similarities and differences between reptiles and amphibians.

3 Objectives Describe the anatomy, feeding requirements, and reproductive systems of reptiles and amphibians. Identify some common reptile and amphibians.

4 Terms Reptile Amphibian Ectotherm Tortoise Scute Plastron Carapace
Omnivore Snake Lizard Anamniotic Cloaca Hemipenes

5 A reptile is a cold- blooded animal with lungs and dry, scaly skin.
Reptiles A reptile is a cold blooded animal with lungs and dry, scaly skin. Any cold blooded animal is called an ectotherm. Lizards, snakes, and turtles are often kept as pets. Since many reptiles can live up to 20 or more years, owning a reptile as a pet is a long-term commitment.

6 What are the types of reptiles and amphibians?
Turtles have many unique terms to describe their anatomy. Tortoise is the common term used to describe terrestrial turtles. Their shells are covered with scutes. Scutes are large, scale-like structures made of keratin that cover the shells of turtles. Since scutes have nerve endings, turtles can tell when someone or something touches them.

7 Turtles Plastron is found under the chest of turtles and is made of bony plates covered with scutes. The top of the shell is called the carapace. Some varieties are very large and others, such as the snapping turtle, can bite with a great deal of strength, so be sure to research the type of turtle you would like to own before purchasing one.

8 Feeding Turtles can be herbivores, such as box turtles, or carnivores, like snapping turtles. However most are omnivores, meaning they eat both meat and vegetation.

9 Feeding Most pet stores carry a pelleted food that should be used in order to give a balanced diet. Foods with colorful dyes should be avoided. ReptoMin is a reputable food brand.

10 Reproduction All turtles reproduce by laying eggs.
No known species show parental care, meaning their offspring are on their own as soon as they hatch. Temperature plays a role in the sex of the offspring.

11 Special Traits Turtles have shells to protect them.
These shells are formed from keratin, the same stuff our nails are made from. Some turtles can retract into their shells, but not all. Sea turtles cannot pull their limbs and head into their shells.

12 Snakes Snakes are reptiles with long tails and no legs.
They are not suited for everyone because of their special needs as pets. Some of these needs include a specific diet, proper cage temperatures (including heat rocks), and water supply. Several species used for pets have different food and environmental requirements. Two common types of snakes are garter snakes and pythons.

13 Anatomy Snakes have a vertebrae, or backbone, and ribs along their body. All of their organs are elongated through their bodies.

14 Feeding Snakes are carnivores, so they need meat in their diets.
In the wild they eat rodents, small birds, and other small animals. Depending on the species, you may have to feed it small pinkies (baby mice) or full grown rats.

15 Reproduction After mating, female snakes can store sperm in them for a long time. Some snakes carry the fertilized eggs in them until they hatch and give birth to live young, others lay the eggs. Newborns are usually able to defend themselves and don’t require their parents to survive.

16 Snakes Housing for your snake should be very secure, as snakes are curious creatures and will squeeze out through very small openings in a cage to explore their surroundings. Research the specific kind of snake you want before deciding what supplies and food you will need.

17 Lizards Lizards are reptiles with tails, four legs, movable eyelids, and ear openings. They come in many shapes, colors, and sizes. Always find out how large the lizard will be at maturity so that you can provide it with a proper environment.

18 Anatomy Lizards have scales like other reptiles, which are designed to keep moisture in their bodies. Lizards vary in size depending on the species. Small ones include anoles and geckos while crocodiles and komodo dragons are much larger.

19 Feeding Lizards typically eat whatever they find on the ground.
Typical diets include bugs, small rodents, and other lizards. As pets, you may need to feed live mealworms or canned food for your lizard.

20 Reproduction Some lizards give birth to live young while others lay eggs. Eggs tend to be soft and leathery are oppose to hard like a chicken’s egg. The reproductive organ for females is called the cloaca and hemipenes or a single penis for the males.

21 Medical Care of Reptiles
Reptiles do not require regular vaccines like dogs and cats. Bloodwork is usually recommended when they are ill or to determine sex. Typically reptiles are not seen by a vet unless they are ill, which can be difficult to tell.

22 Amphibians a cold-blooded animal with the larvae being typically aquatic, breathing by gills, and the adults being typically semiterrestrial, breathing by lungs and through the moist, glandular skin. What is the difference between amphibians and reptiles?

23 Amphibians One difference is with the eggs.
Amphibians have eggs that are anamniotic, which means that they are jelly-like, instead of calcified. They also don’t have a nutrient-rich membranes in the eggs.

24 Development Amphibians also develop differently than reptiles.
They start with gills in their juvenile stages and then develop the use of lungs later on. They are still ectotherms, however.


26 Reproduction Typically the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them, as opposed to mating and fertilizing internally.

27 Anatomy Amphibians do not have scales like reptiles and their skin needs more moisture. Due to their development, they need to stay in water as young but then live mostly on land as adults. They typically have webbed feet as adults and some sort of tail as young to aid in swimming.

28 Feeding Most amphibians, like frogs and toads, eat insects.
Some larger amphibians might eat fish or small animals. There are some stores that carry pelleted or balanced food. Crickets are also available in some pet stores.

29 Medical Needs Amphibians are very rarely seen in a veterinarian… less than reptiles! Finding a vet that can even provide care for reptiles and amphibians can be a challenge.

30 Venn Diagram Create Venn diagram to compare and contrast amphibians to reptiles.

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