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Unit 1 Online Quiz 1.Go to https://district158.schoolnet.com 2.Log in using your username & password 3.Type in the code
Social Psychology The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another Topics of study: Prejudice, Social norms/rules, Altruism, Attraction, Obedience, Role-Playing, Group Influence, Aggression
Attitudes Beliefs and/or feelings about objects, people, and events that can affect how people behave in certain situations. Prejudice – irrational attitude, bias, preconception (positive or negative) Most of the time attitudes are first then behavior. The opposite can be true as well. –Development Conditioning – Family and authority figures Observational learning – watching others Cognitive evaluation – What is the evidence? Does it agree with me? Cognitive anchors – Persistent beliefs that do not change
A. Attribution Theory: A theory of how we explain the behaviors of other people We tend to: –Attribute behavior to the external situation –Attribute behavior to internal dispositions (their personality)
Attribution Theory Antecedent: information, beliefs, motivations that we already have; forms our opinion. Attribution: Causes we come up with to explain why people do what they do Consequence: What we do about the situation, our emotional response and our expectations-what we think will happen in the future
Fundamental Attribution Error: Looking at someone else: –We OVER estimate the influence of personal qualities and UNDER estimate the power of the situation Looking at ourselves: –We UNDER estimate ourselves and we OVER estimate the situation
Example Imagine you are taking a college course. You observe that there is a student in the class that has been very quiet during the entire term. The student does not even talk during the class discussions. You conclude that the student is a very quiet and shy person. –In this example, it is possible that we may wrongly assume that the student's quiet behavior reflects his or her personality, and we may fail to adequately consider some situational factors that could explain the student's behavior. –For example, we may not consider that the person may find the course very boring, or the person is experiencing difficulty and does not feel like talking in class
Tuesday 1/31- Love, Beauty, & Attraction Log in to Haiku and complete BW #6
How does ‘Like’ turn into ‘Love’? Love develops because of: –Physical Attraction upon first meeting someone, this is what we see! As time goes by, personalities become more important. –Familiarity The more we see specific people, the more we like them –However, too much closeness too fast can reduce attractiveness!
“Birds of a feather flock together” or “Opposites attract”? Matching Phenomenon: –choose partners who are a good match, intellectually, physically –**opposites actually retract Mere Exposure Effect: Repeated exposure increases liking –We choose friends because we live near them, sit near them in school, work with them, etc
Intimacy CommitmentPassion Romantic Love Companionate Love Liking infatuation Empty love Consummate Love 1. Three Components of Love: Sternberg Fatuous Love
Beauty Those society deems as ‘beautiful’ are seen as happier, more sensitive, more successful, more socially skilled 1.Attractiveness is NOT related to self-esteem 2.Youth & fertility is always attractive (biologically men are attracted to women with a waist 1/3 more narrow than hips-ideal for childbirth) 3.Facial Symmetry 4.Beauty is in the eye of the culture 5.Beauty changes w/ time
Wednesday 2/2- Love, Beauty, Attraction Log in to Haiku and complete BW #7
Thursday 2/2- Interpersonal Relationships You need your textbook today!
Interpersonal Relationships 1.Get into groups of 8 & complete your assigned topic/experiment. Be sure everyone is on the right track 2.When everyone is finished – get into small groups (all 1’s, 2’s, 3’s…together) 3.You will need to TEACH your group members about your topic. DO NOT just copy off each other’s papers 4.Turn into bin
Deindividuation: Altruism: Role Playing: Obedience:
Friday 2/3- Social Factors Log in to Haiku and complete BW #9
Deindividuation Deindividuation—the process by which a person loses his or her sense of individuality & responsibility as the result of being in a group **Hazing, mobs, gangs –Ingroup vs. outgroup bias—”us” vs. “them” Ingroup-a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity Outgroup-the group that people perceive as distinctively different from their ingroup Ex: Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment
Altruism Bystander Effect: The tendency for helping to decrease when bystanders are present Diffusion of Responsibility: when others are present, people feel less personal responsibility –influenced by surroundings as well
Role-Playing Refers to the changing of one's behavior to assume a role, either unconsciously to fill a social role, or consciously to act out an adopted role –EX: Zimbardo’s Prisoner-Guard Experiment
Obedience Describes the act of carrying-out commands –Ex: Milgram Experiment :Men were told to give an electric shock to others who answered questions wrong no shock actually given 65% gave severe shock unethical study
Social Norms the explicit or implicit rules specifying what behaviors are acceptable within a society or group –Ex: When one enters an elevator, it is expected that one turns around to face the doors. An example of a social norm violation would be to enter the elevator and remain facing the rest of the people.
Conformity The act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to what individuals perceive is normal of their society or social group. –Ex: Solomon Asch Conformity Experiments
Personal Space The region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs. –Most people value their personal space and feel discomfort, anger, or anxiety when their personal space is encroached.