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U.S. COAST GUARD AUXILIARY AIR PROGRAM DITCHING AT SEA! SURVIVING THE ULTIMATE AVIATION CHALLENGE! Donald Zinner District 7 Flight Safety Officer.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. COAST GUARD AUXILIARY AIR PROGRAM DITCHING AT SEA! SURVIVING THE ULTIMATE AVIATION CHALLENGE! Donald Zinner District 7 Flight Safety Officer."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. COAST GUARD AUXILIARY AIR PROGRAM DITCHING AT SEA! SURVIVING THE ULTIMATE AVIATION CHALLENGE! Donald Zinner District 7 Flight Safety Officer

2 AVIATION SAFETY AVIATION SAFETY IS THE ABSENCE OF A CONTROLLABLE HAZARD HAZARDS MAY BE CONTROLLED BY: ENGINEERING (REDUNDANCY, BETTER CRASHWORTHINESS) WARNING PLAQARDS TRAINING AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT (PFD, EPIRB, LIFE RAFT) AVOIDANCE (JUST DON’T DO IT) THESE ARE ALL PRINCIPLES OF RISK MANAGEMENT

3 Ditching 2 Versions Planned and Immediate

4 PLANNED VS. IMMEDIATE DITCHING Planned PLANNED DITCHING MEANS SOME TIME TRANSPIRES BETWEEN THE EMERGENCY AND THE DITCHING ALLOWING THE CREW TIME TO PREPARE GENERALLY CAUSED BY A POWER LOSS AT ALTITUDE HAS THE HIGHEST PROBABILITY OF SURVIVAL ETOPS: EXTENDED OPERATIONS OVER WATER ETOPS = ENGINES TURNING OR PEOPLE SWIMMING!

5 PLANNED VS. IMMEDIATE DITCHING Immediate LITTLE TIME BETWEEN THE EVENT AND THE DITCHING THE CREW HAS NO TIME TO PREPARE AND WILL EGRESS WITH LIFE JACKETS ONLY IF THEY ARE BEING WORN GENERALLY CAUSED BY A POWER LOSS AT LOW ALTITUDE WHILE ON APPROACH, LANDING, OR MANEUVERING HAS A LOWER PROBABILITY OF SURVIVAL THAN PLANNED DITCHING

6 SOME CAUSES OF DITCHING MISHAPS IMMEDIATE INSUFFICIENT ALTITUDE AT TIME OF POWER LOSS PLANNED OR IMMEDIATE FUEL EXHAUSTION AT ALTITUDE LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS VISUAL ILLUSIONS ON NIGHT APPROACH MECHANICAL FAILURE PILOT INCAPACITATION LOSS OF CONTROL

7 SURVIVAL STATISTICS Airplane Configurations Involved in Ditching Accidents US Civil Aviation: CY Airplane Configuration Number Ditched Number Fatal Percent Fatal All Types of Airplanes High Wing, Fixed Gear79810 Low Wing, Fixed Gear38616 High Wing, Retract Gear *33721 Low Wing, Retract Gear * Total (All Types) * Generally bigger faster aircraft

8 MORE THAN 80 PERCENT OF DITCHINGS ARE INITIALLY SURVIVABLE OF THE 20 PERCENT OF FATALITIES, 80 PERCENT DO NOT SUCCESSFULLY EGRESS (USUALLY REAR OCCUPANTS) SURVIVAL STATISTICS SUMMARY OF THE 20 PERCENT OF FATALITIES, 20 PERCENT ARE LOST AT NIGHT

9 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVABILITY DEPENDS ON A NUMBER OF PRIMARY FACTORS 1.THE G FORCES MUST BE WITHIN HUMAN TOLERANCE 2.THE AIRFRAME MUST MAINTAIN ITS INTEGRITY 4.OCCUPANTS MUST SUCCESSFULLY EGRESS 3.THERE MUST BE NO CATASTROPHIC POST-IMPACT FIRE 5.THE OCCUPANTS MUST BE RESCUED

10 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS G FORCES: THE PROBABLITY OF SURVIVAL IS EQUAL TO THE ANGLE OF ARRIVAL KINETIC ENERGY TO BE DISSIPATED INCREASES BY THE SQUARE OF THE VELOCITY (KE=1/2MV 2 ) i.e., TWICE THE VELOCITY EQUALS FOUR TIMES THE ENERGY HUMANS TOLERATE CRASH FORCES WELL ONLY IN THE STRAIGHT AHEAD HORIZONTAL PLANE VERTICAL ACCELERATIONS ARE DEADLY SIDE ACCELERATIONS ARE DEADLIER! CRASH FORCES

11 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS CRASH FORCES DITCHINGS ARE MORE SURVIVABLE THAN FORCED LANDINGS ! BECAUSE OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE G FORCES OVER A LONGER TIME—MORE TIME TO DECELERATE

12 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVORS MUST EGRESS

13 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVORS MUST BE RESCUED

14 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS DITCHING PROCEDURES POWER ON PLANNED DITCHING IS PREFERRED TO POWER OFF IF NO POWER IS AVAILABLE, 20 KNOTS SHOULD BE ADDED TO BEST GLIDE SPEED IN THE LAST 1,000 FEET TO FLARE WITHOUT STALLING ENSURE PFD’s ARE WORN AND SECURE LIFE RAFT AND EPIRB WHEN EVENT OCCURS (PILOT BRIEFS THE CREW) REMOVE HEADSETS TO AVOID ENTANGLEMENT UNLATCH AND PROP OPEN DOORS TO AVOID ENTRAPMENT FLY THE AIRPLANE THROUGH THE DITCHING TIGHTEN SAFETY RESTRAINTS SQUAWK 7700 AND BROADCAST A MAYDAY WITH POSITION CONDUCT A THOROUGH PRE-TAKEOFF SAFETY BRIEFING

15 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS DITCHING PROCEEDURES DO NOT LAND INTO THE FACE OF A STEEP SWELL! IF AIRCRAFT INVERTS, USE A POINT PREVIOUSLY LOCATED TO ORIENT YOURSELF—PLACE YOUR HAND ON THE ROOF TO CUSHION FALL IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO OPEN DOOR WAIT FOR COCKPIT TO FILL WITH WATER TO EQUALIZE PRESSURE TRIM FOR NOSE UP NORMAL LANDING ATTITUDE BUT DO NOT STALL! KICK OUT A WINDOW IF NECESSARY WHEN AIRCRAFT COMES TO A STOP, EGRESS AS SOON AS PRACTICAL DO NOT INFLATE LIFE VEST OR RAFT INSIDE AIRCRAFT! RENDEZVOUS AT PREVIOUSLY BRIEFED LOCATION, INFLATE LIFE RAFT AND ACTIVATE EPIRB (HOLD RAFT BY TETHER DURING EGRESS)

16 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS DITCHING PROCEEDURES

17 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS DITCHING PROCEEDURES

18 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS ENEMIES OF SURVIVAL TREAT LIFE-THREATENING INJURIES IMMEDIATELY HEAT IS LOST AT A RATE 25 TIMES GREATER THAN AIR DEHYDRATION IS THE SECOND GREATEST KILLER DON’T GIVE UP! MANY SURVIVORS DIE AS HELP ARRIVES! DO NOT REMOVE YOUR CLOTHING; YOU WILL NEED IT HYPOTHERMIA IS THE NUMBER ONE KILLER IN THE WATER IF WITHOUT POSITIVE FLOTATION, INFLATE TROUSERS OR USE DEAD-MAN’S FLOAT REMAIN STILL IN THE WATER TO CONSERVE HEAT AND TO MINIMIZE PREDATOR ATTRACTION (HEAT ESCAPE LESSENING POSTURE -- HELP)

19 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS HEAT ESCAPE LESSENING POSTURE (HELP)

20 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS ALERT – LOCATE SIGNALS THE BEST LOCATE/ALERT SIGNAL IS AN EPIRB W/ GPS THE BEST ALERT SIGNAL IS VOICE TRANSMISSION (MAYDAY) A FLOATING AIRCRAFT IS EASIER TO DETECT THAN A LIFE RAFT A LIFE RAFT IS EASIER TO DETECT THAN A SURVIVOR IN THE WATER WITH OR WITHOUT A PFD TRAIN ON THE PROPER USE OF ALERT – LOCATORS SUCH AS SIGNAL MIRRORS, STREAMERS, FLARES, ETC. SIGNIFICANTLY ENHANCE THE PROBABILITY OF DETECTION THE NEXT BEST LOCATE/ALERT IS A MAYDAY WHILE IN RADAR CONTACT

21 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS ALERT – LOCATE SIGNALS PROVIDES THE MOST DATA CONCERNING THE TYPE OF EMERGENCY AND INTENTIONS VOICE TRANSMISSION OF MAYDAY OVER A/C RADIO IS LEAST ACCURATE IN DETERMINING POSITION UNLESS A CLEAR GEOGRAPHIC FEATURE CAN BE REFERENCED OR GPS COORDINATES ARE TRANSMITTED OFTEN REQUIRES DIVERSION OF ATTENTION FROM THE EMERGENCY (AVIATE, NAVIGATE, COMMUNICATE) ONCE YOU HAVE PROVIDED THE INFORMATION, FLY THE AIRCRAFT! USE FLIGHT FOLLOWING—IF YOU DISAPPEAR FROM RADAR OR CALL MAYDAY YOU HAVE GENERATED A POSSIBLE ALERT AND POSITION BELOW 500 MSL, TRANSMIT “N123AB MAYDAY DITCHING” -- FLY THE AIRCRAFT!

22 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS EPIRB – LOCATE SIGNALS TYPE OF PORTABLE ELT GENERALLY USED BY SURFACE VESSELS EMERGENCY POSITION INDICATING RADIO BEACON (EPIRB) (A/L) MANUALLY ACTIVATED (CLASS B) OLDER TYPE TRANSMITS TO SARSAT ON MHz AND WOBBLE TONE CAN BE HEARD BY OTHER A/C (ACR MINI-B 300) LESS ACCURATE – NM MILES ON FIRST PASS INITIAL POSITION UNCERTAINTY RESULTS IN A 450 SQ. NM AREA ANONYMOUS TRANSMISSION RESULTS IN HIGH-FALSE ALARM RATE RESCUE A/C MUST HOME TO SIGNAL

23 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS EPIRB 406 – LOCATE SIGNALS EMERGENCY POSITION INDICATING RADIO BEACON (EPIRB) (A/L) NEWER TYPE TRANSMITS TO SARSAT ON 406 MHz AND CAN INCLUDE GPS FOR PRECISE POSITION ON FIRST PASS ACTIVATE AND LEAVE ON UNTIL BATTERY EXHAUSTED; DO NOT TURN ON AND OFF! BATTERY WILL LAST ABOUT 48 HOURS IN TROPICS MORE ACCURATE – 1 TO 3 NM MILES ON FIRST PASS INTEGRAL GPS GIVES ±100 METER RESOLUTION that’s about 300ft INITIAL POSITION UNCERTAINTY RESULTS IN A 12 SQ. NM AREA SOME UNITS ALSO BROADCAST ON FOR A/C HOMING BROADCAST CONTAINS ID SIGNAL THAT IDENTIFIES THE AIRCRAFT OR USER AND RESULTS IN LOW RATE OF FALSE ALARMS

24 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS ALERT – LOCATE SIGNALS Not Recommended

25 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS LOCATE SIGNALS DO NOT USE UNLESS YOU ARE REASONABLY SURE THAT THE SIGNAL CAN BE SEEN (PROBABILITY OF DETECTION) PYROTECHNICS (A/L) IF CLOSE TO SHORE OR A VESSEL, FIRE ONE AERIAL FLARE AS AN ALERT SIGNAL SAVE OTHER PYROTECHNICS AS LOCATE SIGNALS

26 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS ALERT – LOCATE SIGNALS PRIMARILY A DAY LOCATE SIGNAL DYE MARKER (L) DISSIPATES AFTER ABOUT 10 MIN DEPENDING ON SEA CONDITION DIFFICULT TO KEEP DRY AND FROM DYEING EVERYTHING DISPERSES A FLUORESCENT GREEN DYE

27 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS ALERT – LOCATE SIGNALS DAY ALERT – LOCATE SIGNAL SIGNAL MIRROR (A/L) NO BATTERIES REQUIRED DOESN’T WORK ON CLOUDY DAYS EFFECTIVE UP TO TEN MILES TAKES PRACTICE TO AIM GLASS IS MOST REFLECTIVE POLYCARBONATE OR LEXAN IS ABOUT 60 – 80% OF GLASS PLASTIC FLOATS CD’s WORK WELL

28 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS ALERT – LOCATE SIGNALS SIGNAL MIRROR (A/L)

29 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS LOCATE SIGNALS PRIMARILY A NIGHT LOCATE SIGNAL STROBE LIGHTS (A/L) BATTERY LASTS ABOUT 8-10 HOURS TURN ON AND LEAVE ON! EFFECTIVE UP TO TEN MILES

30 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS ALERT – LOCATE SIGNALS PRIMARILY A LOCATE SIGNAL RESCUE STREAMER (L) DOES NOT DISSIPATE LIKE A DYE MARKER EFFECTIVE UP TO TEN MILES

31 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS ALERT – LOCATE SIGNALS PRIMARILY A LOCATE SIGNAL RESCUE WHISTLE (L) CAN BE USED EVEN WHEN YOU CANNOT SHOUT OR SPEAK MUST NOT HAVE A PEA OR OTHER BALL INSIDE EFFECTIVE UP TO ONE MILE

32 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT TSO MODEL REQUIRED BY FAA LIFE VESTS PROVIDES 25 LBS BUOYANCY NO SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT OTHER THAN A LIGHT NOT DESIGNED FOR CONSTANT WEAR

33 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT SERRATED BLADE WITH SHEEPSFOOT POINT RESCUE KNIFE CAN BE OPENED WITH ONE HAND USED FOR EMERGENCY DISENTANGLEMENT WORN ON OUTSIDE OF LIFE VEST

34 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT 75 ML PURE DRINKING WATER WATER PACKETS SOME IN POCKET OF CLOTHING PREVENTS DEHYDRATION IF IN WATER OVERNIGHT SOME IN POCKET OF LIFE VEST

35 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT MUST BE TSO FOR PAX FOR HIRE INFLATABLE LIFE RAFTS PLACE ON RIGHT SEAT AND BELT IN WHEN SOLO BALLAST AND CANOPY ARE IMPORTANT FEATURES STORE IN A/C WHERE IT IS ACCESSIBLE

36 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT TYPICAL FOUR MAN RAFT (ACTUALLY TWO MAN) INFLATABLE LIFE RAFTS DOES PROVIDE SOME PROTECTION FROM HYPOTHERMIA EASIER TO LOCATE THAN SURVIVOR IN WATER NO BALLAST STABILITY OR CANOPY

37 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT TYPICAL FOUR MAN TSO RAFT INFLATABLE LIFE RAFTS DOES PROVIDE SOME PROTECTION FROM HYPOTHERMIA EASIER TO LOCATE THAN SURVIVOR IN WATER NO BALLAST – EASILY OVERTURNED

38 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT SIX MAN USCG SAR RAFT INFLATABLE LIFE RAFTS HEAVY BALLAST & CANOPY – ABOUT 52 POUNDS EXCELLENT HYPOTHERMIA PROTECTION – INFLATABLE FLOOR AIR DROPPED FROM C-130 OR HU-25

39 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS RESCUE PROCEDURES

40 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS RESCUE PROCEDURES DO NOT PANIC! PANIC REDUCES YOUR PROBABILITY OF SURVIVAL DO NOT GIVE UP, HELP WILL ARRIVE! INFLATE LIFE VEST AND GET IN THE LIFE RAFT STAY WITH THE AIRCRAFT IF AT ALL POSSIBLE; IT IS RELATIVELY EASY TO SPOT IF NOT IN A LIFE RAFT, ATTACH SURVIVORS TOGETHER; DON’T GET SEPARATED WHEN THE HELO ARRIVES, DO EXACTLY WHAT THE RESCUE SWIMMER TELLS YOU-- DO NOT TRY TO ‘HELP’ HIM! DO NOT TOUCH THE RESCUE BASKET UNTIL IT HAS TOUCHED THE WATER (STATIC ELECTRICITY) ABANDON LIFE RAFT AND PUNCTURE-- HELO WILL NOT COME IN TO PICK YOU UP UNTIL LIFE RAFT HAS SUNK

41 SURVIVABILITY FACTORS EQUIPMENT INSPECTIONS INSPECT YOUR GEAR QUARTERLY-- TEST STROBES, EPIRBS, AND RADIOS ORALLY INFLATE (OR USE COMPRESSOR) YOUR PDF’S ANNUALLY INFLATION TEST AND INSPECT LIFE RAFT ANNUALLY CO2 BOTTLE MUST BE HYDRO’D EACH 5 YEARS (DOT).

42 QUESTIONS?


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