# REQUIRED PJAS SLIDES IN ORDER

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REQUIRED PJAS SLIDES IN ORDER
Title Research Problem/Purpose/Question Hypothesis Materials Procedure Data Collected Graphs of results Analysis Conclusion Weaknesses/Improvements Future Studies/Research Works Sited All slides have…. white background same size and font titles same size and font text text can be seen from across the room when projected

REQUIRED TITLE SLIDE THE AFFECT THE DEPTH OF SAND HAS ON CONVECTION CURRENTS By Diana Kelly
Title is the broad area of study First and Last Name are after the title May decorate with small, discreet, clip art or other media that is relevant to the topic in the corners to not block the title or name

PROBLEM: Hot sand burns bare feet
PROBLEM: Hot sand burns bare feet. PURPOSE: To determine if digging a path to moist sand would reduce the sand temperature and prevent feet from blistering which is 18% of the body sections. PROBLEM PURPOSE 1 source Conduction highlighted dataTime to go to the beach! The surface of the sand is really hot at the beach. Just a few inches down the sand is really cold. Objects transfer heat at different rates. Scientists call that ability thermal conductivity. Sand has a very low conductivity. At the beach, the sand acts like a big insulator. The sand on the top gets very hot, but conducts very little heat to the ground below 1 source highlighted data REFER TO VOCABULARY 2 source Jul 26, 2010 posted by: Joe Ciccanti highlighted data Millville Medical Center because of burns to the bottom of her feet. She had to be treated for—large blisters—skin blistering. 2 sourcehttp://firstaid.about.com/od/softtissueinjuries/a/07_burn_surface.htm highlighted data The Rule of Nines To approximate the percentage of burned surface area, the body has been divided Right leg (below the knee) Left leg (below the knee) Each of these sections takes about nine percent 3 source CHOP Diabetes Center for children, Summer Foot Care Tips highlighted data If your child gets a cut, insect bite or blister, give proper care and make sure it heals quickly Avoid walking barefoot 3 source

REQUIRED QUESTION SLIDE Will a digging a path in the sand reduce the temperature of the walkway path to prevent feet from blistering when walking on hot sand on 95 degree days? 1 Question answers the problem via an experiment 2 Question relates to the problem and purpose 3 One question is asked

REQUIRED QUESTION RESEARCH SLIDE
Will digging a path in the sand reduce the temperature of the walkway path to prevent feet from blistering when walking on hot sand on 95 degree days? 1 source Conduction highlighted dataTime to go to the beach! The surface of the sand is really hot at the beach. Just a few inches down the sand is really cold. Objects transfer heat at different rates. Scientists call that ability thermal conductivity. Sand has a very low conductivity. At the beach, the sand acts like a big insulator. The sand on the top gets very hot, but conducts very little heat to the ground below 2 source highlighted data You may also check text books on "heat transfer in porous (or multiphase) media.” 3 source highlighted data plastic tube, about 20 mm in ID and about 200 mm in length. Fill the tube with the mixture and block the two ends tight with two thin (5-10 mm) cooper disks. Insert a few thermocouples at 20 mm internals (from end to end) into the tube. Steadily heat one of the copper disks at one end and cool the other copper piece at the other end. Moderate heating is sufficient.

REQUIRED HYPOTHESIS SLIDE If sand temperatures are measured at vertical depths of 0 cm (control), 2 cm, 4 cm, and 6 cm; then the 6 cm vertical depth will be the coldest temperature. Formatted as an if…then statement Position is stated as an outcome measurement (dependent variable) Independent variable included and data provided for experimental groups Supports research

REQUIRED VOCABULARY SLIDE
Thermal conductivity is the quantity of heat transmitted through a unit thickness in a direction normal to a surface of unit area, due to a unit temperature gradient under steady state conditions Thermal conductivity measured in k - at oC 25 Sand, dry LOWER NUMBER MEANS LESS HEAT IS GOES DOWN THROUGH Sand, moist    THE SAND SO THE SURFACE IS HOTTER Sand, saturated 2 - 4

REQUIRED MATERIALS SLIDE
NOT a numbered list All needed materials to complete the experiment are included Amount needed and measurement of material are clearly discernible EXAMPLES: 500 ml glass beaker Twelve 250 ml paper cups 6 glass stir rods (12)250 ml paper cups (6) glass stir rods

REQUIRED PROCEDURE SLIDE(s) each slide is titled procedure
No pronouns Verb (action word) starts blurb Numbered steps Blurbs in order needed to perform experiment Measurements and quantity used or times performed included Repeated steps refer to number and state “Repeat steps x through y” for experimental group z or control group Fill the plastic lid measuring l w h with 8 cm of sand. Tap the lid on a flat surface use a ruler to measure the depth at the four corners and approximate center Repeat steps 1-3 to achieve an even vertical depth of 8 cm throughout the lid Mark the edges of the plastic lid by placing painter’s tape on the flat surface to maintain the same position Position a sun lamp 10 cm above the plastic lid To measure sand temperatures use a thermometer with masking taped markings measured at 0cm, 2 cm, 4 cm, and 6 cm Push the thermometer down to the 6 cm marking in the center of the lid Wait 30 seconds, Recording the temperature Withdraw the thermometer to 4cm and repeat steps 8-11 in the 4 corners at 4 cm, 2 cm, and then 0 cm Turn on the sun lamp, check surface temperature every 30 min until surface temperature is 80 C or greater Repeat steps 8 through 12

REQUIRED PHOTOGRAPH SLIDE
Photographs of procedure being performed

REQUIRED DATA SLIDE DATA IS NOT THE TITLE
Title defines data actually collected (the independent variable, dependent variable, AND control are stated) EXAMPLE: Temperature of sand at 0 cm , 2 cm, 4 cm, and 6 cm below the surface. Data is in a table Data includes averages Data is in metric units Data is a measured outcome of the independent variable (related)

REQUIRED GRAPH SLIDE(S)
Title of slide is X axis title vs Y axis title One graph may show all data and averages or more than one graph may be needed If time is used as a variable the data for the sample is kept together on different graphs to avoid confusion and an average graph has all data of all samples 8 parts to a graph title of graph is x axis title vs y axis title x axis title (independent variable) y axis title (dependent variable) x axis label in lower right corner y axis label in upper left corner scale of x is accurate, metric, and spans the graph scale of the y is accurate, metric, and spans the graph data is clearly plotted (key if needed)

REQUIRED ANALYSIS SLIDE
Bullets for blurbs that discuss graphed results Analysis includes specific sample name and measured independent variable Analysis is sufficient to provide details to the conclusion No opinions are stated No reason for outcome is provided Consists of only an analysis of the data as presented in the graphs

REQUIRED CONCLUSION SLIDE
Reflects a restatement of the hypothesis Includes the result that related to the problem, purpose, and question Does not provide opinion Does not provide reason Does not state I was right or wrong, my hypothesis was right or wrong, accepted or rejected Reflects only the restatement of the hypothesis to reflect the results collected in the data.

REQUIRED WEAKNESSES/IMPROVEMENTS SLIDE
Thoughtful consideration given to… Lab practices/techniques Control of experiment Available equipment Neatness to prevent cross contamination

REQUIRED FUTURE STUDIES SLIDE
Connected to current experiment RESEARCH FOR FUTURE STUDY FUTURE STUDY IS STATED HERE 1 source highlighted data

REQUIRED WORKS SITED SLIDE
1. FORMAT IS POSTED AT