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Hacking Exposed 7 Network Security Secrets & Solutions Chapter 4 Hacking Windows 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Hacking Exposed 7 Network Security Secrets & Solutions Chapter 4 Hacking Windows 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hacking Exposed 7 Network Security Secrets & Solutions Chapter 4 Hacking Windows 1

2 Hacking Windows Unauthenticated attacks Authenticated attacks Windows security features 2

3 Prelude Vulnerabilities – Trivially exploited configuration vulnerabilities NetBIOS null sessions, simple IIS buffer overflow – More complex ones Heap exploits, end user attack through Internet Explorer Areas of focus – Network services, kernel drivers, applications Factors of risk: popularity and complexity – Popular Windows vulnerabilities: Code Red, Nimda, Slammer, Blaster, Netsky, Gimmiv, etc. – NT 3.51  Windows 7: tenfold in code size New security-related features – Reduced default network services, host firewall enabled by default, user account control (UAC), etc. 3

4 Unauthenticated Attacks Authenticated Spoofing Remote password guessing – Main targets: Server Message Block (SMB) on TCP 445 and 139, Microsoft Remote Procedure Call (MSRPC) on TCP 135, Terminal Services (TS) on TCP 3389, SQL on TCP 1433 and UDP 1434, SharePoint (SP) over HTTP on TCP 80 and HTTPS on TCP 443, etc. – Automatic guessing on CLI: FOR and net use with username/password file (see virus/org/default- password), enum, Brutus, THC Hydra, Venom – Automatic guessing on GUI of Terminal Services/Remote Desktop Services: TSGrinder, Rdesktop after patch with brute-force capabilities 4

5 Unauthenticated Attacks Password-Guessing Countermeasures Network firewall to restrict access to potentially vulnerable services/ports Host “Windows Firewall” Disable unnecessary services Enforce strong password policy Set an account-lockout threshold Log and analyze account logon failures – Dumpel, DumpEvt, Event Comb, ELM Log Manager 5

6 Unauthenticated Attacks Eavesdropping on Network Password Exchange Three authentication protocols: LM (LAN Manager) (with hash), NTLM (with RC4 encryption), Kerberos (with private or optional public key encryption) Attack tools: Cain, LCP, L0phtcrack, KerbSniff – Sniffing, brute-force cracking, dictionary cracking, Rainbow cracking (from a valid account) – To sniff on a switched network: ARP spoofing/poisoning to redirect traffic through attackers 6

7 Unauthenticated Attacks Windows Authentication Sniffing Countermeasures Disable LM authentication Pick good passwords (password complexity features) No dictionary password Use public key encryption Use built-in Windows IPsec to authenticate and encrypt traffic 7

8 Unauthenticated Attacks Man-in-the-Middle Attacks (MITM) Relay legitimate client authentication exchange and gain access to the server as the client SMBRelay: Harvest usernames and password hashes from SMB traffic and import into cracking tools ARP spoofing and DNS redirection: force victims to connect and authenticate to malicious SMB servers Tools: Cain, Squirtle, SMBRelay3 – Cain: redirect local traffic to itself with ARP spoofing, then downgrade clients to easier authentication dialects (sniffed, unencrypted, recorded) MITM countermeasures – Authenticate and encrypt connections between clients and servers IPsec in Windows Firewall – Disable NetBIOS Name Services 8

9 Unauthenticated Attacks Pass-the-Hash Use LM and/or NTLM hash of a user’s password – No need to crack/brute-force the hash to cleartext password – Replay to gain to gain authorized access – Limitations: Not all functionalities of the protocol are implemented – Dump/modify NTLM credentials stored in memory and replay Windows Credentials Editor (WCE) Pass the ticket for Kerberos – WCE: dump Windows Kerberos tickets and reuse them 9

10 Unauthenticated Attacks Remote Unauthenticated Exploits Flaws or misconfigurations in Windows software itself – TCP/UDP services  driver interface, user-mode applications (MS Office, Internet Explorer, Adobe Acrobat Reader) Metaexploit – Framework plus archive of exploit modules – Locate/search the exploit module – Customize exploit parameters (vendor and model of victim software), payloads (remote command shell, users, injecting prebuilt code), and options (target IP address, IDS evasion, etc.) Network service exploit countermeasures – Patch, available workaround, log and respond 10

11 Unauthenticated Attacks End-User Application Exploits End users – Less professional on security – Poorly managed rich software ecosystem Adobe Flash Player in browser – Display of rich media and animated content over Internet – Metaexploit (search /w adobe flash) Countermeasures – Personal firewall, network firewall, patch, antivirus, Internet options in control panel, least privilege, read in plaintext, configure to very high macro security, don’t be gullible, secure devices physically 11

12 Unauthenticated Attacks Device Driver Exploits Windows wireless: within physical proximity to a rogue access point beaconing malicious packets Plug and play (compatibility) – Vast sea of drivers Execution in highly privileged kernel mode  total compromise Metaexploit exploit modules: e.g. oversized wireless beacon frame  remote code execution Countermeasures – Patch, turn-off at high concentration of APs, driver signing (trusted signatures on kernel-mode software), User-Mode Driver Framework (UMDF) 12

13 Authenticated Attacks Privilege escalation Privilege escalation – From a user account to admin/system privilege Getadmin family of exploits – DLL injection – Interactively logged-on accounts from escalating privileges – From Administrator to SYSTEM privilege at (Windows Scheduler service) or psexec (remotely) Preventing privilege escalation – Patch your Windows – Restrict interactive logon privileges Run Security Policy applet  Local Policies  User Right Assignment  Deny log on locally 13

14 Authenticated Attacks Extracting Passwords Extracting and cracking passwords – From administrator, post-exploit activities: Gather more usernames and passwords Disable Windows firewall Grabbing password hashes – Stored in Windows Security Accounts Manager (SAM) for local users, Active Directory on Windows 2000 and domain controllers (DCs) for domain accounts – pwdump/pwdump2-6, fgdump, and automated remote hash extraction (LSA cache dumping, protected store enumeration) use DLL injection to insert themselves into a privileged running process to extract password hashes – pwdump countermeasures: no defense if /w admin and DLL injection 14

15 Authenticated Attacks Cracking passwords Hashing – one-way encipherment Offline password guessing – Hashing algorithm  hash for a list of possible values (e.g. dictionary)  compare with hashed password from pwdump  matched means cracked – Account lockout is not an issue Weak hash algorithm – Stronger hashing vs. salting (random value to prevent precomputed hash tables, rainbow tables, that speedup cracking) Smart guessing – Dictionary, brute-force, precomputed hash tables – Project Rainbow Crack: precomputed LM hash table for $120 with 24GB in 6 DVDs Tools – CLI: John The Ripper Jumbo – GUI: LCP, Cain (dictionary, brute-force, LM/NTLM hashes, sniffed, rainbow tables), Ophcrack, L0phtcrack, Elcomsoft Processing time – Entropy ~ unpredictability 15

16 Authenticated Attacks Dumping Cached Passwords Dumping cached passwords – Local Security Authority (LSA) Secrets cache Service account passwords in plaintext, cached password hashes of the last ten logon users, FTP/Web user plaintext passwords, remote access services (RAS) dial-up accounts and passwords, etc. LSADump2 (~pwdump2 with DLL injection): finds PID of LSASS, injects itself, grabs LSA Secrets Cain (with built-in LSA Secrets extractor), gsecdump CacheDump, MS-Cache Hashes, WCE Password cache dumping countermeasures – LSA hotfix /w encryption: but circumvented by lsadump2 by DLL injection – Avoid getting admin-ed in the first place – Change the Registry value 16

17 Authenticated Attacks Dumping Hashes Stored in Memory Dumping hashes stored in memory – Windows Credentials Editor (WCE) – In memory: usernames, domain names, password hashes of users logon interactively, locally or remotely Cached credentials Dumping hashes stored in memory countermeasures – No silver bullet – Keep the security of ALL members Compromised server  compromised domain – Avoid RDP to unknown systems – Avoid granting admin privileges 17

18 Authenticated Attacks Remote Control and Back Doors Back doors: services enabling remote control Command-line remote control tools – netcat/nc (TCP/IP Swiss army knife) Configured to listen on a port and launch an executable when connected – psexec (SMB on TCP 139 or 445) and at – Metaexploit Framework: a large array of backdoor payloads to spawn command-line shells bound to listening ports, etc. Graphical remote control tools – Terminal Services on TCP 3389 – Virtual Network Control (VNC) 18

19 Authenticated Attacks Port Redirection Fpipe – A TCP source port forwarder/redirector – A compromised system running a telnet server behind a firewall that blocks port 23 (telnet) but allow port 53 (DNS) Fpipe started with a listening server port 53 and redirected to port 23 Stream forced by Fpipe to use source port 53 to pass the firewall 19

20 Authenticated Attacks Covering Tracks Disabling auditing – auditpol Clearing event log – elsave Hiding files – attrib – Alternate Data Streams (ADS) Rootkits – Post-exploit kits after gaining the root privilege 20

21 General Countermeasures to Authenticated Compromise Filenames – Look for suspicious or hidden file names – Use antimalware software Registry keys – Look for rogue registry keys (most applications look for specific values in specific locations) – reg delete to remove them Processes – Malicious process with CPU utilization – kill to stop – Check scheduler queue: at, schtasks, task scheduler Ports – Identify renamed netcat listener (back door): netstat -an 21

22 Windows Security Features (1/3) Windows Firewall – “Exception” metaphor for permitted applications – All inbound connections are blocked by default Automated Updates Security Center – For consumers, not IT pros Security Policy and Group Policy – For stand-alone computer and large number of systems Microsoft Security Essentials – Antimalware: real-time protection, system scanning and cleaning, rootkit protection, network inspection, automatic updates The Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit – Managing mitigation technologies in Windows: DEP (Data Execution Prevention), ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization) 22

23 Windows Security Features (2/3) Bitlocker and encryption file system – EFS (Encryption File System) Symmetric key itself encrypted by public key of a user and stored as an attribute of the file; symmetric key decrypted by a private key first before decrypting the file – BDE (Bitlock Drive Encryption) Encrypt the entire volumes and store the key securely Cold boot attack: cool DRAM chips to increase the time before the key is flushed from volatile memory Countermeasures: separate the key physically, removable external module Windows Resource Protection (WRP) – Protect files and registry values from modifications by ACL Integrity levels – Mandatory Integrity Control (MIC): actions - privileges 23

24 Windows Security Features (3/3) Data Execution Protection (DEP) – Mark portions of memory nonexecutable to prevent buffer overflow attacks Windows service hardening – Service resource isolation, least privilege services, service refactoring, restricted network access, session 0 isolation Compiler-based enhancements – Compile-time under-the-hood features, not configurable by admins or users: buffer security check (GS), ASLR, SafeSEH 24

25 Summary 1.Center for Internet Security (CIS): free Microsoft security configuration benchmarks and scoring tools at 2.Another book – Hacking Exposed Windows 3.New Microsoft security tools and best practices at microsoft.com/security 4.Don’t forget exposures from other Microsoft products, e.g. SQL vulnerabilities 5.Applications are far more vulnerable than OS Hacking Exposed Web Applications 6.Minimization equals higher security 7.Disable file, print, and other unnecessary services 8.Use Windows Firewall 9.Protect Internet-facing servers 10.Keep up to date service packs and security patches 11.Limit interactive logon privileges and escalation 12.Use Group Policy to create and distribute configurations 13.Enforce physical security against offline attacks 14.Subscribe to security publications and online resources 25


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