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Complete CompTIA A+ Guide to PCs, 6e Chapter 12: Windows XP, Vista, and 7 © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
To distinguish between the Windows XP, Vista, and 7 operating systems To install, configure, and troubleshoot Windows XP, Vista, and 7 To install hardware and software About various tools and features, such as System Restore, driver roll back, and WinRE What Windows goes through to boot the system and how to troubleshoot boot problems About the Computer Management console, Task Manager, and Event Viewer How to avoid burnout in the IT field © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
: Compare and contrast the features and requirements of various Microsoft operating systems : Given a scenario, install, and configure the operating system using the most appropriate method : Given a scenario, use appropriate command-line tools : Given a scenario, use appropriate operating system features and tools : Given a scenario, use Control Panel utilities : Perform preventive maintenance procedures using appropriate tools : Explain the basics of client-side virtualization : Apply and use common security prevention methods : Compare and contrast common security threats : Given a scenario, troubleshoot operating system problems with appropriate tools : Given a scenario, troubleshoot common security issues with appropriate tools and best practices. © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Windows XP Professional Windows XP Professional x64 Windows XP Home Windows XP Tablet PC Windows XP Media Center © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Vista/7 Starter Vista/7 Home Basic Windows Vista/7 Home Premium Windows Vista Business Windows Vista/7 Enterprise Windows Vista/7 Ultimate © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
32-Bit Windows64-Bit Windows 32-bit or 64-bit processor64-bit processor 4GB RAM limitation1 to 192+GB RAM supported 32 bits processed at a time64 bits processed at a time 32-bit drivers required64-bit device drivers required, digitally signed DEP (Data Execution Prevention)"Always-on" DEP support for 64-bit processes © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
UpgradeClean InstallMicrosoft Upgrade AdvisorEasy Transfer Program USMT (User State Migration Tool) Dual-BootMulti-BootFormat © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
ComponentMinimum RequirementsRecommended Requirements CPUIntel Pentium or300MHz or higher AMD K6/Athlon/Duron 233MHz RAM64MB128MB or higher Hard Disk Space1.5GB>1.5GB VideoVGA or higherSVGA with PnP monitor Optical DriveCD or DVD driveCD or DVD drive (12x or higher) Input DeviceKeyboard and mouse Keyboard and mouse or pointing device or pointing device © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
ComponentMinimum RequirementsRecommended Requirements Processor800MHz 32-bit or 64-bit multiple core1GHz 32-bit or 64-bit multiple core and dual processors RAM512MB1GB Hard Drive Space20GB (a minimum of 40GB (a minimum of 15GB of available space) 15GB of available space) GraphicsSVGA128MB of video memory and support for DirectX9 or higher with WDDM driver, Pixel Shader 2.0 in hardware, 32-bit color Optical DriveCD-ROMDVD-ROM SoundAudio output NetworkInternet connectivity © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
ComponentRequirements_____________ Processor1GHz RAM1GB (32-bit)/2GB (64-bit) GraphicsSupport for DirectX9 or higher with 1.0 WDDM driver Hard drive16GB (32-bit)/32GB (64-bit) © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
BIOS VirusBoot Sector (MBR) VirusFile Virus Hijack Virus or Browser Hijacker Macro VirusTrojan (Horse) ProgramStealth VirusPolymorphic VirusWorm VirusPhage Virus © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Sysprep SIM (System Image Manager) WDS (Windows Deployment Services) Microsoft Setup Manager MDT (Microsoft Deployment Toolkit) © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
PXE Boot (Preboot Execution Environment) LTI (Lite Touch Installation) Unattended Installation or ZTI (Zero Touch Installation) Remote Network Installation © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
A Type 1 hypervisor is also known as a native hypervisor because the operating system runs on top of the hypervisor. Examples of Type 1 hypervisors include VMware's ESXI and Microsoft's Hyper-V. A Type 2 hypervisor, also known as a hosted hypervisor, runs on top of a host operating system such as Windows 7. VMware Workstation, Oracle VirtualBox, and Windows Virtual PC are examples of Type 2 hypervisors. © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
A common misconception about virtualization is that you don't have to buy both operating systems when two operating systems are installed. This is not always true. Depending on the virtual software used, if you wanted to install Windows XP in one virtual machine, Windows 7 in another virtual machine, and Windows Server 2008 in a third virtual machine, you would have to purchase all three operating systems. You may have to enable virtualization in the BIOS before you can install any type of virtualization software (including Virtual PC/Windows XP Mode) on the computer. A common misconception about virtualization is that you don't have to worry about security because you are in a "protected" environment. This is not true. The protection is that one operating system is protected from the other operating system, but all virtual machines are susceptible to viruses and security attacks. Install the appropriate protection. © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Patch Service Pack Hotfix © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Device Driver Plug and Play Adapters © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Restore Points Shadow Copy © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
System ToolsStorage Services and Applications © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Hard Drive Optical Drive USB PXE (Preboot Execution Environment) © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Safe Mode Safe Mode with Networking Safe Mode with Command Prompt Enable VGA Mode (XP only) Enable low-resolution video (640 X 480) (Vista or 7) Last Known Good Configuration Debugging Mode Enable Boot Logging Disable automatic restart on system failure (Vista or 7) Disable driver signature enforcement (Vista or 7) Start Windows Normally Repair Your Computer (Vista or 7) Reboot © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Remote Desktop Remote Assistance Task Manager Event Viewer Windows XP's Dr. Watson Windows XP's System Monitor and Performance Logs and Alerts Windows Vista/7's Reliability Monitor and Performance Monitor Windows Vista/7's Problem Reports and Solutions System Configuration Utility (msconfig Command) © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Always have an antivirus software program that has current virus definitions.Make frequent data backups. Have a backup of your operating system. Many external hard drives include backup software. Remember that Windows XP Home and Vista Home Basic/Premium do not include a backup utility. Ensure that the System Restore utility is enabled.Update the operating system with service packs and patches.Use the Task Scheduler tool to automate some of the preventive maintenance tasks. © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Burnout is commonly caused by too much work and stress. Burnout is a mental state that can also affect emotional and physical capabilities. Working too much, having too many responsibilities, and expecting too much of yourself can all lead to burnout. Technicians should monitor their own attitude and mental state constantly and watch for warning signs associated with burnout. © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
CompTIA recommends that you have one year of experience before taking the exam. Students have been able to pass this exam right after the course, however. Redo all the labs. Ensure that you pay attention to the purpose of the tool and consider why (or in what situation) you would use each Windows tool. When your own computer momentarily slows down, use some of the tools to examine the cause. Ensure that you know how to control the boot process and use the Advanced Boot Options menu effectively. Go into each of those menus before the exam and be confident that you know when to use each one. Know the difference between Remote Assistance and Remote Desktop and the port number that must be opened through a firewall. Know the upgrade paths for Windows 7. Be able to articulate the difference between the Windows XP, Vista, and 7 control panels. Be able to control, upgrade, and roll back a device driver. Know the different user groups and what they can do. Know virtualization emulator requirements and the purpose of the hypervisor. © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Windows operating systems can be 32-bit or 64-bit. The 32-bit versions are limited to a maximum of 4GB of RAM. 32-bit operating systems or applications are sometimes referred to as x86 instead of 32-bit. Windows operating systems come in different editions that have various features and tools. For example, the Home versions cannot join corporate network domains or encrypt files/folders. Windows XP has WFP and Windows Vista/7 have WRP to protect the key operating system files. sfc /scannow checks system files. There are specific operating system in-place upgrade paths that are permitted. Otherwise, a clean install must be performed. You must activate the Windows license by phone or Internet. A repair installation is performed when Windows has to be reloaded. Use the Upgrade Advisor before upgrading Windows. Multiple operating systems can be installed. (Install the oldest one first, and install the operating systems on separate partitions.) Virtualization can also be used to have multiple operating systems installed. Compatibility mode, Windows XP Mode, or virtualization can be used to allow older applications to operate properly. No machine should be deployed without antivirus software installed. Symptoms of a virus include the computer not booting, computer running slowly, hard drive activity increases, files are missing, applications do not work or do not work properly, unusual messages or graphics appear, and so on. © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
Corporate Windows deployment involves creating a master image and deploying that image across a network. Deployment methods include PXE boot, unattended installations. LTI, and remote network installation. Network bandwidth is affected by imaging. Operating system installation failures are often caused by lack of planning for the installation: insufficient or incompatible hardware, incompatible software, and lack of operating-specific drivers. A computer that uses virtualization must have more hardware than a single operating system environment. To back up the Windows registry, use regedit, the Backup utility, or the System Restore tool. Windows updates include device driver updates. Use the driver roll back feature or System Restore when an update causes the system to not work. The Computer Management console is used to access System tools (Task Scheduler, Event Viewer, Shared Folders, Local Users and Groups, Performance, and Device Manager), Storage, and Services and Applications. The Advanced Boot Options menu is commonly used when the tools within Windows cannot be used in the normal boot environment. The most commonly used options are Safe Mode, Safe Mode with Networking, Enable Low Resolution (Vista/7), Last Known Good Configuration, Disable Automatic Restart on System Failure (Vista/7), Disable Driver Signature Enforcement (Vista/7), and Repair Your Computer (Vista/7). © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
The bootrec command can be used to detect and repair master boot issues, operating system files, or the boot sector. The System Configuration utility (msconfig) can be used to control what applications load during the boot process. Task Manager can be used to display system performance, stop applications that are not working properly, and view which applications and processes are taking up memory. Event Viewer logs issues with applications and the operating system to provide a historical record and timeline of when things occur. Remote Assistance (the msra command) and Remote Desktop (the mstsc command) are used to control and use a remote computer. Remote Assistance displays a prompt requesting permission. Task Scheduler can be used to perform preventive maintenance on a regular basis. Preventive maintenance can reduce downtime and includes keeping the operating system and applications patched, keeping the antivirus definitions current, and keeping the hard drive defragmented and with ample space. Technicians can do positive things to avoid burnout including getting good rest, avoiding drugs and alcohol, doing non-technical things, and having good time-management skills. © 2014 Pearson IT Certification
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