2 Formation of Giant Planets Giant planet formation Solid planets (~10 Earth masses) Instability of the atmosphere Onset of gas accretion Gap formation Dissipation of the disk Satellites are thought to be formed at very end stage of the giant planet formation.
3 What is Satellite System? –Systems that consist of multiple objects rotating around planets –Generally exist around gas giant planets –Regular satellites and irregular satellites Regular satellites: –Nearly circular orbits, orbital plane ~= equatorial plane –Occupy most of the total mass of satellites → Formed from circum-planetary disks? Jupiter and Galilean satellites Satellites of outer planets
Minimum mass subnebula model –Massive disk at one time Too high temperature for ice Too fast Type I migration Calisto’s partial differentiation Gas-starved disk model –Canup and Ward 2002, 2006 Spreading tidal-disk model –Crida and Charnoz 2012 4 Three models Canup and Ward 2002 Courtesy of A. Crida
5 Structure of circum-planetary disk Sun Proto-planetary disk How about solid materials? Hydrodynamic simulation for growing gas giant planets Formation of circum-planetary gas disks (e.g., Miki 1982, Lubow et al. 1999; Tanigawa, Ohtsuki, and Machida 2012) Tanigawa and Watanabe 2002 Visualization by T. Takeda (CfCA, NAOJ) Tanigawa, Ohtsuki, and Machida 2012
6 Purpose of this study We examine processes of supplying solid material to circum-planetary disks in order to address the formation of satellite systems.
Methods Particle orbits are calculated on the Hill coordinate (restricted three-body problem) with gas drag. –Initial condition e=i=0 at this stage. Back ground gas velocity and density for gas drag are given by 3D hydrodynamic simulations (Tanigawa, Ohtsuki, and Machida 2012) Visualization by T. Takeda ( ヴェイサエンターテイメント ) Background gas flow Tanigawa, Machida, and Ohtsuki 2012
9 Visualization by T. Takeda ( ヴェイサエンターテイメント ← 4D2U project team, CfCA, NAOJ) Midplane: → No accretion! Shock surface Circumplanetary disk High altitude: → Fall and accretion → Fall and accretion laminar flow Shock surface
Gas-free case: Two encountering directions 11 Minimum distance to the planet Impact parameter b ProgradeProgradeRetrograde See also Petit & Henon 1986, Ida & Nakazawa 1989
Weak gas-drag case: Typical orbits for prograde capture 12 r s = 10 4 m r s = 10 2 m r s = 10 0 m Captured for wide size range particles
Weak gas-drag case: Typical orbits for retrograde capture 13 r s = 10 5 m r s = 10 4 m r s = 10 2 m r s = 10 3 m r s = 10 1 m Fall to the planet Change the rotating direction and then captured by the disk
Capture band and radius 14 10 -1 m 10 5 m 10 3 m 10 1 m Distance from the planet Impact parameter b
Capture rate and radius 15 Normalized capture rate Size of incoming particle [m] Fitting formula where r s,peak = 50 f dep,g [m] f dep = 1 f dep = 10 -2 f dep = 10 -4 Captured radius f dep = 1 f dep = 10 -4 f dep = 10 -2 Size of incoming particle [m]
Surface density of solid particles in circumplanetary disks 16 Accretion rate of solid particles onto circumplanetary disks in real dimension Surface density of solid particles in circumplanetary disks Obtained fitting formulae Normalized capture rateCaptured radius Dust drift velocity
Surface density of solid particles f dep = gas depletion factor f dep = 1.4x10 0 f dep = 1.4x10 -3 f s/g = 0.01 f s/g = 1 f s/g = solid to gas ratio r s = 10 0 m r s = 10 4 m gas r s = 10 -3 m r s = 10 1 m r s = 10 -3 m Standard disk Depleted disk Solid enriched disk ガス面密度高い → 高温 → 氷気化 ガス面密度 ＯＫ 固体面密度不足 ガス面密度 OK 固体面密度 OK Solid to gas ratio of incoming flow bands should be much higher (~1) than that of solar composition (~0.01). 10 7 10 0 10 4 10 -3 10 4 10 -3
Future works to clarify satellite formation processes 18 原始惑星系円盤 – ガス惑星軌道近傍の固体のサイズ分布（小林＠名大） 原始惑星系円盤からの物質供給 –pressure bump による固体供給の律速（瀧＠東工大） – ガス供給率：原始惑星系円盤中のギャップの深さ（金川＠北大） – 固体供給率 – 固体の供給位置 周惑星円盤 – ガスの面密度（藤井＠名大） – 固体の面密度（成長を無視した場合） – 固体の成長（合体成長方程式、 N 体計算）（奥住＠東工大、荻原＠名大） available this study on going? Sun Proto-planetary disk
Summary We examined accretion of solid particles that is originally rotating in heliocentric orbit onto circumplanetary disks by orbital integration with gas drag. –We use the gas flow that was obtained by 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations (Tanigawa et al. 2012). –No back reaction to the gas flow –Limited on the midplane (particle motions are 2D) for now. Retrograde encounter region accounts for the accretion of solid particles onto the circumplanetary disk. Accretion rates are enhanced for 10-1000m sized particles. –The size decreases with decreasing gas density. The size would decreases with time. –Fitting formula of accretion rates as a function of particle size. Position to be captured in the circumplanetary disks becomes closer to the planet with increasing particle size. Solid to gas ratio of the accretion flow should be much higher than that of solar composition to form satellite systems. 19