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Principles and methods of contemporary diplomacy Phd. (St. Petersburg University, Groningen University) Associate Pr. Natalia Tsvetkova American Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles and methods of contemporary diplomacy Phd. (St. Petersburg University, Groningen University) Associate Pr. Natalia Tsvetkova American Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles and methods of contemporary diplomacy Phd. (St. Petersburg University, Groningen University) Associate Pr. Natalia Tsvetkova American Studies Dep.

2 The main topics 1) evolution of diplomacy; 2) theory of diplomacy 3) contemporary methods of diplomacy 4) dissection of diplomatic documents 5) everyday work of diplomats Limitation and specific of the course: Traditionalism (English-Russian school of Diplomacy) – a point of view from the position of state-state relationship

3 The course will combine 1) my lectures: 2) your reading: a link to books would be provided 3) presentations or a short paper (3-5 pages) 4) a written exam (1 question). 6 credits

4 Definitions and review of approaches to the Diplomatic Studies 1)Diplomacy as a practice is the official activity of the heads of states or special establishments (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, business, people, and etc) in order to conduct the aims of a foreign policy. 2)Diplomacy Studies is a branch of IR to study the diplomatic practice.

5 Hegemony of state structures or nonstate actors in diplomacy? Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a primary institution to conduct diplomacy of a government: there are 191 states operating in the modern diplomatic environment, compared to 47 in 1950 and 26 in 1926. However,

6 A new problem to define the term “diplomacy”: traditional views In its simplest form diplomacy is the maintenance of peace and the avoidance of war. G. Berrige ( in the book “Diplomatic Theory from Machiavelli to Kissinger” 2001): diplomacy is ‘‘the term given to the official channels of communication employed by members of a system of states

7 Pressure from NGOs and MNCs 2014: 21 000 NGOs 2014: 53 000 MNCs And they have adopted basic diplomatic functions such as –negotiation skills, –visible representation, –political reporting –and symbolism

8 New problem to define the term “diplomacy”: nontraditional view Due to the rise of nontraditional actors, such as NGOs, multi-national corporations (MNCs), and even individuals, the definition is Paul Sharp ( in article devoted to English school of diplomacy: Herbert Butterfield, the English School and the Civilizing Virtues of Diplomacy // International Affairs gives new definition: “ Diplomacy is relations between groups to avoid a conflict”

9 2) Who studies the diplomacy? 1) researchers >> Diplomatic Studies the centers of knowledge: Diplomacy and Statecraft Diplomatic History International Negotiations Who studies the diplomacy? 2) former diplomats >> memories >>

10 the approaches to the Diplomatic studies : Historical approach 1.Nicolson H. Evolution of Diplomatic methods 2.Anderson M. The rise of modern diplomacy; 3.Hamilton K. The practice of diplomacy; 4.Berridge G.R. Diplomacy: theory and practice; Specifics: The emphasis is on the history, development and evolution The emphasis is on the types of the diplomatic methods The attempts to formulate a conceptual basis for the development of diplomacy: Evolution representation

11 Harold Nicolson (1886-1968) -is a farther of Diplomacy Studies

12 Review of literature Conflicts resolutions and diplomacy 1)Brady L. Politics of Negotiations; 2)Cohen R. Negotiating Across Cultures. 3)Lebedeva M. Political resolution of conflicts; (in Russian). 4)Kaufmann J. The diplomacy of international relations (case- studies). Specifics: 1)They discuss certain case-studies and the role of diplomacy (like the Middle East) 2)A lots of historical analogies

13 Review of literature Case-study approach Hundreds of papers devoted to the specific questions: UN and multilateral diplomacy Sanctions Summits Public diplomacy

14 Review of literature Memories and diplomatic practice (the pure Russian approach) 1)Popov V. Contemporary diplomacy. The theory and practice 2) Torkunov A. V. Contemporary diplomacy (a textbook for Russian students) 3) Zonova T. The diplomatic service (the textbook for Russian students) 4) Zhiznin S. Z. Energy diplomacy of Russia Specifics: Dry text about diplomatic services, analysis of foreign diplomatic mechanism Memories about the service.

15 3) From “classics to post-modernism”: how are diplomats taught? Classics of the diplomacy studies: –De Callieres Francois. The Art of Diplomacy, reprinted from the book of 18 cent. Oxford, 1983 (many editions) –Satow Ernest. A Guide to Diplomatic Practice. London,1922. (later edition in 1950s, 1979) –Their ideas: description of diplomatic history; the organization of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the formulation of foreign policy; the functions of the embassy; the qualities of the diplomat; negotiation, and protocol.


17 From “classics to post modernism”: preliminary notes Innovative ideas came after the end of the Cold War: they challenged the notion that the state holds a monopoly over diplomacy: –Hoffman, John. (2003) Reconstructing Diplomacy //British Journal of Politics and International Relations 5(4): 525–542. –Langhorne, Richard. (1997) Current Developments in Diplomacy: Who Are the Diplomats Now? // Diplomacy and Statecraft 8(2): 1–15. –Sharp, Paul. (1999) For Diplomacy: Representation and the Study of International Relations // International Studies Review 1(1): 33–57.

18 4) Three Schools in Diplomacy Studies 1.Traditional, 2.Nascent (alternative) 3.Innovative

19 Traditional School a state is central maker of diplomacy the central purpose of diplomacy is to overcome the anarchical nature of international system diplomacy is the management of international relations by negotiation; the method by which these relations are adjusted by ambassadors and envoys The books are prescriptive guides to diplomacy Low political issues—humanitarian aid —are not central in diplomacy

20 Traditional School Who? Nicolson, Kissinger, Watson, Satow, and George: Kissinger, Henry. (1994) Diplomacy. Watson, Adam. (1982) Diplomacy: The Dialogue Between States. Keith, Hamilton, and Richard Langhorne. (1995) The Practice of Diplomacy. Nicolson, H. (1950) Diplomacy. Craig, Gordon A., and Alexander L. George. (1995) Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time

21 Nascent (alternative) School Traditional diplomacy as increasingly distanced from the real world problems Nonstate actors are practicing faster, cheaper, and more effective unofficial diplomacy The state as an obstacle to the peaceful development of the world order diplomacy is to foster the equitable, networked, and stable relationships amongst nonstate actors. These actors pursue the unconventional goals such as human rights or aid development issues

22 Nascent (alternative) School Who? Diamond, Louise, and John W. MacDonald. (1996) Multi- Track Diplomacy: A Systems Approach to Peace. Hocking, Brian. (1999) Foreign Ministries: Change and Adaptation. Der Derian, James. (1987) On Diplomacy: A Genealogy of Western Estrangement. Riordan, Shaun. (2003) The New Diplomacy. Cambridge: Polity Press. Langhorne Richard combines the visions of traditionalism and alternative school

23 Innovative School Combination of two views of traditionalism and nascent schools Diplomacy is activity made by state and nonstate actors Eclecticism of views Nothing new

24 Innovative School: representatives Mellisen, Jan, ED. (1999) Innovation in Diplomatic Practice. Sharp, Paul. (1997) Who Needs Diplomats? The Problem of Diplomatic Representation // International Journal 52(4): 609–634. Cooper, A. F., and Brian Hocking. (2000) Governments, Non-governmental Organisations and the Re-calibration of Diplomacy // Global Society 14(3): 361–376.

25 Conclusion Realism of Traditionalism VS. Constructivism of nascent and innovative school Russian diplomacy studies is laid on the traditional prospective + realism

26 homework Downland the reading files: Files for reading

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