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Morpho-phonology of the Nominal Suffix in Taiwan Hakka Dialects Michael M. Opper Phondi Talk 10/15/2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Morpho-phonology of the Nominal Suffix in Taiwan Hakka Dialects Michael M. Opper Phondi Talk 10/15/2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Morpho-phonology of the Nominal Suffix in Taiwan Hakka Dialects Michael M. Opper Phondi Talk 10/15/2010

2 Objectives Talk about the phonological fundamentals of four Taiwan Hakka dialects Compare the Nominal Suffix NS in Taiwan Hakka dialects with a particular emphasis on Guanxi Sixian

3 Hakka Dialects and Chinese Hakka is one of seven Chinese languages Spoken primarily in Northern Guangdong and Western Fujian Roughly three million speakers in Taiwan; fifty million worldwide

4 Some Features of Hakka Dialects All Hakka dialects have a nominalizing suffix. It is cognate to SC 兒 and has been commonly written with the “dummy character” 仔 Lack [y] Lack yángshǎng 陽上 ; only one shǎng tone Register distinction in píng and rù; sometimes qù Words with sonorant initials in higher registers Unique words for son ‘lai6’ and mother ‘oi1’

5 Taiwan Hakka Dialects Sixian spoken by roughly 50% of Taiwan Hakka Hailu spoken by more than 20% Raoping spoken by less than 20% Others spoken by less than 10%

6 Dialects Surveyed Zhutian Sixian Guanxi Sixian Xinzhu Raoping Yangmei Hailu

7 Taiwan Hakka Phonology C(G)VX structure for heavy syllables CV structure for light syllables (the NS) Rimes (Finals) V:- {a, e, i, o, u, ɨ } VX- V {e, o, a}, X {i, u, p, t, k, m, n, ŋ } Dialects differ mainly in Onsets (Initials) and Tonemes

8 Zhutian Sixian Onsets BilabialsLabiodentalsDentalsVelarsGlottals Unaspirated Voiceless Stops p 包冰 t 刀等 k 歌经 Ø [ʔ] 嬰有 Aspirated Voiceless Stops pʰ 泡喷 tʰ 同定 kʰ 苦圈 Unaspirated Voiceless Affricates ts 子走 Aspirated Voiceless Affricates tsʰ 次在 Fricatives f 福 v 碗 s 双船 h 号限 Nasals m 尾忘 n 牛难 ŋ 饿元 Lateral Approximant l 梨流

9 Zhutian Sixian Tones 24 – MH 31 – ML 44 - HH 32 - ML 11 – LL X55 - HH

10 Guanxi Sixian Onsets BilabialsLabiodentalsDentalsVelarsGlottals Unaspirated Voiceless Stops p 包冰 t 刀等 k 歌经 Ø [ʔ] 嬰矮 Aspirated Voiceless Stops pʰ 泡喷 tʰ 同定 kʰ 苦圈 Unaspirated Voiceless Affricates ts 子走 Aspirated Voiceless Affricates tsʰ 次在 Fricatives f 福 v 碗 s双 z药s双 z药 h 号限 Nasals m 尾忘 n 牛难 ŋ 饿元 Lateral Approximant l 梨流

11 Guanxi Sixian Tones 24 – MH 31 – ML 44 – HH 32 – ML 11 – LL X55 – HH

12 Xinzhu Raoping Onsets BilabialsLabiodentalsDentalsVelarsGlottals Unaspirated Voiceless Stops p 包冰 t 刀等 k 歌经 Ø [ʔ] 嬰矮 Aspirated Voiceless Stops pʰ 泡喷 tʰ 同定 kʰ 苦圈 Unaspirated Voiceless Affricates ts 子走 Aspirated Voiceless Affricates tsʰ 次在 Fricatives f 福水 v 忘 s四 z蛳s四 z蛳 h 号限 Nasals m尾m尾 n 牛难 ŋ 饿元 Lateral Approximant l 梨流

13 Xinzhu Raoping Tones 11 – LL53 – HM 33 – MM 44 – HH 55 – HH X31 – ML

14 Yangmei Hailu Onsets BilabialsLabiodentalsDentalsPost-AlveolarsVelarsGlottals Unaspirated Voiceless Stops p 包冰 t 刀等 k 歌经 Ø [ʔ] 嬰矮 Aspirated Voiceless Stops pʰ 泡喷 tʰ 同定 kʰ 苦圈 Unaspirated Voiceless Affricates ts 子走 tʃ 张 Aspirated Voiceless Affricates tsʰ 次在 tʃʰ 抽 Fricatives f 福 v 忘 s 四伞 ʃ食 ʒ有ʃ食 ʒ有 h 号限 Nasals m尾m尾 n 牛难 ŋ 饿元 Lateral Approximant l 梨流

15 Yangmei Hailu Tones 53 – HM 13 – LM 21 – ML55 – HH X33 – MM 32 – ML

16 The Nominal Suffix NS Heavy syllables: CVX, Light syllables (such as the NS): CV CVXCV will either have an unparsed syllable (CVX)CV or an ill-formed foot (CVX)(CV). The NS cannot be a prosodic word, it affixes to a phonological word to avoid foot-based requirements Requires an onset

17 The Nominal Suffix NS Always e² in Zhutian Sixian (Common Sixian suffix) *** add examples ɤ in Xinzhu Raoping and Yangmei Hailu, becomes a syllabic nasal following nasals with the same place of articulation *** add examples Underlying /l/ in Guanxi Sixian

18 Guanxi Sixian NS Root-Final SegmentSuffix FormExamples [-p]/pl̩//hap 8.pl̩/ ‘box’ [-t]/tl̩//mat 7.tl̩/ ‘socks’ [-k]/kl̩//kok 8.kl̩/ ‘rice patty’ [-m]/mɤ//zit 8.tjam 3.mɤ/ ‘a little bit’ [-n]/nɤ//mun 1.nɤ/ ‘mosquito’ ; /se 5.ŋin 2.nɤ/ ‘child’ [-n]/n̩//lan 2.n̩/ ‘basket’ [-ŋ]/ŋ̩̍//kʰwai 5.tʰoŋ 1.ŋ̩̍/ ‘chopsticks box’ [ŋ̩̍]/ŋɤ//ŋ̩̍ 2.ŋɤ/ ‘fish’ [-i]/jŋ̩̍//pʰi 1.jŋ̩̍/ ‘quilt’ ; /mi 1.tʰjoi 5.jŋ̩̍/ ‘rice bag’ ; /tʰjoi 5.jŋ̩̍/ ‘belt’ [-i]/jɤ//pwoi 1.jɤ/ ‘heat rash’ /moi 5.jɤ/ ‘woman’ [-i]/jl̩//koi 5.jl̩/ ‘scab’ ; /kʰwai 5.jl̩/ ‘chopsticks’ ; /lai 2.jl̩/ ‘son’ [-a]/l̩//tsaː 1.l̩/ ‘car’ [-o]/wl̩//tjao 5.wl̩/ ‘bird’ [-u]/wŋ̩̍//hu 1.wŋ̩̍/ ‘beard’ ***switch bracket types Root+{suff1, suff2} Identified the problem, not solved it!! Do not emphasize OT analysis, cop out!

19 Guanxi Sixian NS Four surface forms: the syllabic lateral [l ̩ ], the syllabic dental nasal [n ̩ ], the syllabic velar nasal [ŋ ̍ ] and the mid-high back unrounded vowel [ ɤ ]. I hypothesize that the underlying form is /l/, only surfaces unchanged in a specific environment: after [a ː ]: e.g. /ts ʰ a ː +l/  [ts ʰ a ː.l ̩ ]

20 Guanxi Sixian NS Vowel final roots show a remarkable amount of free variation. Spreading of the non-low vowels: e.g. /tjao-l/  [tjao.wl ̩ ] and /koi-l/  [koi.jl ̩ ]. In some forms, the /l/ becomes [ŋ ̍ ]: e.g. /p ʰ i.jŋ ̍ /. the /l/ becomes the back vowel [ ɤ ]: e.g. /pwoi.j ɤ / Since /a/ has no glide counterpart, there is a ban on epenthesis, and there is a strict adherence to right-alignment of roots with syllables, [ts ʰ a ː.l ̩ ] is the only option.

21 Gemination There is a strong pressure for every syllable to have an onset. There is also a strong pressure for the rightmost segment of every root to be aligned with the right edge of a syllable.

22 Constraints for Geminates onsetEvery syllable must have an onset align-R(Root,  ) The right edge of every root must align with the right edge of some syllable. depDo not epenthesize *gemDo not have geminates

23 Constraints for hap.pl (con’t) /hap-l/ onsetalign-Rdepmax*gem ☞ (a) hap.pl̩ * (b) hap.l̩ *! (c) haː.pl̩ *! (d) hap.lɤ *! (e) hap *!

24 Constraint Variation for Nasals /mun-l/ align-Rdepmaxonset*gem ☞ (a) mun.n ** (b) mun.nɤ *!* (c) muː.nn *!* (d) mun *! /mun-l/ align-Ronsetmaxdep*gem (a) mun.n *!* ☞ (b) mun.nɤ ** (c) muː.nn *!* (d) mun *!

25 Explain that these variants occur because of confusion from the dialects


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