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Completing the Accounting Cycle for a Service Business

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Presentation on theme: "Completing the Accounting Cycle for a Service Business"— Presentation transcript:

1 Completing the Accounting Cycle for a Service Business
Chapter 6 Completing the Accounting Cycle for a Service Business

2 Adjustments End of period ledger is not accurate
Need to bring accounts up to date Accounts needing updating: Prepaid Expenses, e.g., Prepaid Rent and Insurance (current assets) Fixed Assets, e.g., they decline in value, known as depreciation

3 Prepaid Rent Company prepays for six months rent on November 1, $12000
Dr Prepaid Rent Cr Cash Adjusting entry at December 31, 2006 Dr Rent Expense 4000 Cr Prepaid Rent 2/6 x $12000

4 Supplies The ledger shows a balance for Supplies of $500
A check of the supplies cupboard shows only $350 worth of supplies remaining Adjusting entry: Dr Supplies Expense 150 Cr Supplies

5 Prepaid Insurance Adjustment at December 31, 2004
Buy insurance for one year on April 1, 2004 Dr Prepaid Insurance Cr Cash Adjustment at December 31, 2004 Dr Insurance Expense Cr Prepaid Insurance 18000 9/12 x $24000

6 Depreciation Two methods:
Straight-line: record decrease in value of fixed asset evenly Dep = Cost – Salvage Value Years of Useful Life Declining Balance: accelerated decrease in value in early years where greater use Dep = Book value x CCA allowance % Where Book value = Cost – Accumulated Dep’n CCA = Capital Cost % allowed by government, e.g., Autos 30%, Equipment 20%, Buildings (brick 5%), Buildings (wood) 10%, etc.

7 Depreciation Adjustment: Straight Line
Automobile cost $20000, salvage (residual) value $4000, 8 useful years Calculate first year’s depreciation and adjusting entry: Dr. Depreciation Expense, Auto Cr. Accumulated Depreciation, Auto* ( )/8 * A contra account – see two slides later

8 Depreciation Adjustment: Declining Balance
Automobile with cost $20000 and accumulated depreciation of $4000 is adjusted for a six month period: Dr. Depreciation Expense, Auto 2400 Cr. Accumulated Depreciation, Auto 2400 ( ) x 30% x 6/12

9 Contra Accounts Accumulated Depreciation is an asset with a credit balance which is shown opposite its associated asset on Balance Sheet: Fixed Assets Automobile Less: Accumulated Depreciation Ledger account numbers follow the main accounts, e.g., if Auto is 140, Acc. Dep’n, Auto is 141

10 Worksheet

11 Closing Entries All revenues and expenses must be reduced to zero to allow new entries next period Use the REID formula: R: close revenues to Income Summary E: close expenses to Income Summary I: close Income Summary to Capital D: close Drawings to Capital

12 Close Revenues Close Expenses Cr Income Summary 50000
Dr Fees Income Dr Management Revenue 20000 Cr Income Summary Close Expenses Dr Income Summary Cr Advertising Expense Wages General Expense

13 Close Income Summary Close Drawings
Dr Income Summary Cr J. Schmoo, Capital Close Drawings Dr J. Schmoo, Capital 5000 Cr J. Schmoo, Drawings 5000

14 GAAP Matching Principle re adjustments
Materiality Principle – include all information that affects decisions by users of financial statements Conservatism Principle – when faced with choices, select the treatment resulting in lower net income and net assets

15 Notes All adjusting entries must be journalized and posted to the ledger! Ten column worksheets include two adjusted trial balance columns: Add the adjustments to the trial balance accounts then move to is and bs After all adjusting and closing entries have been posted “take off” a post-closing trial balance to ensure readiness for next period … capital account should be last!

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